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Automatic classification of granite tiles through colour and texture features This paper is about the development of an expert system for automatic classification of granite tiles through computer vision. We discuss issues and possible solutions related to image acquisition, robustness against noise factors, extraction of visual features and classification, with particular focus on the last two. In the experiments we compare the performance of different visual features and classifiers over a set of 12 granite classes. The results show that classification based on colour and texture is highly effective and outperforms previous methods based on textural features alone. As for the classifiers, Support Vector Machines show to be superior to the others, provided that the governing parameters are tuned properly. Highlights We discuss the development of an expert system for automatic classification of granite tiles. We propose new approaches to granite classification based on combined colour and texture analysis. We evaluate the performance of different visual descriptors and classifiers. Combination of colour and texture features proves highly effective in discriminating granite appearance. Classification based on SVM support vector classification outperforms the other methods. People have used granite for thousands of years. It is used as a construction material, a dimension stone, an architectural stone, a decorative stone, and it has also been used to manufacture a wide variety of products. Granite is used in buildings, bridges, paving, monuments, and many other exterior projects. Indoors, polished granite slabs and tiles are used in countertops, tile floors, stair treads and many other design elements. Granite is a prestige material, used in projects to produce impressions of elegance and quality. Some interesting and common uses of granite are shown in the photo collection below. The definition of "granite" varies. A geologist might define granite as a coarse-grained, quartz- and feldspar-bearing igneous rock that is made up entirely of crystals. However, in the dimension stone trade, the word "granite" is used for any feldspar-bearing rock with interlocking crystals that are large enough to be seen with the unaided eye. By this classification, rocks such as anorthosite, gneiss, granite, granodiorite, diabase, monzonite, syenite, gabbro and others are all sold under the trade name of "granite." The quality control process in stone industry is a challenging problem to deal with nowadays. Due to the similar visual appearance of different rocks with the same mineralogical content, economical losses can happen in industry if clients cannot recognize properly the rocks delivered as the ones initially purchased. In this paper, we go toward the automation of rock-quality assessment in different image resolutions by proposing the first data-driven technique applied to granite tiles classification. Our approach understands intrinsic patterns in small image patches through the use of Convolutional Neural Networks tailored for this problem. Experiments comparing the proposed approach to texture descriptors in a well-known dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed method and its suitability for applications in some uncontrolled conditions, such as classifying granite slab under different image resolutions. These ceramic and granite tiles from Italian company Cerdomus are unusual, modern and effortlessly beautiful. The ceramic-granite made tiles mimic gorgeous wood flooring. Their unique appearance brings dynamic contrasts into a modern interior design, offering practical, convenient flooring. Wood-like floor tiles are a timeless choice that turns living spaces into luxurious and unique rooms, filled with comfort, warmth and timeless elegance. These modern floor tiles are excellent for creating an original interior design, adding a contemporary touch to home decorating. Suitable for decorating almost all home interiors, from bathrooms, laundry rooms and entryways to kitchens and living rooms. The nature of granite ensures durability and practicality, exceeding over marble or man-made stone. The durable and attractive floor tiles are made of ceramic-granite. Encouraging to experiment and create fresh and sophisticated floor decor. Designed for few stylish collections, ideal for different interior design and home decorating styles. From country home style to classic, contemporary and eco style. Numerous tile colour shades reflect natural wood yellowish to bleached white and brown colours of natural wood.
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TURN YOUR KID’S ARTWORK INTO A SCRAPBOOK The kids have only been in school for two months, but the papers and artwork are piling up. Normally I keep a select pieces of artwork and recycle the rest (after the kids are in bed). This year I’m taking a different approach. Armed with my Straight Talk Samsung Galaxy S6, I’m taking pictures of their artwork and turning it into a kids art scrapbook. What, you don’t have time to make a scrapbook? Don’t worry, this scrapbook is low maintenance and costs less than $10 to make. Even if you’re not crafty, you’ll be surprised by how simple it is to turn your kid’s artwork into a scrapbook. Grab your smartphone and let’s get started! Now grab that stack of artwork you have piled up in the corner. Pull out your favorite pieces (or have your child help) to photograph. Natural lighting is the best, so photograph outside or near a window. I set up a photography station on our patio. I already have foam boards for my food photography, but you can also use posterboard or cardboard. Make sure it’s bigger than your child’s artwork and the board is a solid neutral color. Here I used black foam board. Set the foam board on a chair or something sturdy. Alternately, you can tape it to a wall or window. Take a 3″ piece of masking or washi tape and roll it onto itself. Attach it to the board. You’re essentially creating a reusable sticky surface to attach the artwork to the board. The hobby of scrapbooking is quite popular. People use kids' scratch coding book to tell a story, chronicle the history of their family, and preserve cherished memories. Most scrapbookers are also having fun and relieving stress. If you have thought about giving scrapbooking a whirl but are clueless where to start, this guide will help. Even if you are not the artistic type, you can still make lovely pages when following some simple rules and guidelines. There are many types of glues sold for scrapbooking; decide what kind you prefer. Examples are glue sticks, liquid glue pens, photo tape, foam dots, and more. The glue needs to photo-safe and acid-free. Albums and Sheet Protectors Albums come in a variety of sizes; the standard size that most beginners use is 12 x 12 inch. This size allows you to use many sizes of photos and still have room for other scrapbooking elements. Make sure the page protectors are Mylar, polypropylene, or polyethylene. Any other page protector will damage and fade your pages with time. Cutting Tools You will want large and small straight edge pairs of scissors. Other options include decorative scissors, paper trimmers, and shape cutters. For advanced art stencil book, a digital die-cut machine is useful.
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Calculation Inductance of Toroidal Inductor Wound by Rectangular Cross-Sectional Wire In this article, we present two methods for calculation of the inductance of toroidal core power inductors wound by rectangular cross-sectional wire, considering that the current density is inversely proportional to the circular coil radius. The first method is to simplify the helical toroidal coil into a thick-walled toroidal, and based on Grover’s toroidal inductor formula, the inductance is obtained by calculation the magnetic flux and the calculation method is simple, but the applicability is poor. The second method is to simplify the helical toroidal coil into a collection of self-closing circular coils, the calculation method is complex but has high accuracy, and the mutual inductance between the circular coils is calculated by the filament method based on the adjusted Grover’s mutual inductance of circular coils with inclined axes. We verify the adjusted Grover’s mutual inductance of filamentary circular coils with inclined axes and the mutual inductance between inclined circular coils with a rectangular cross section. Finally, we compared and analyzed the results calculated by the two methods proposed in this article and the results calculated by the finite element method. The various advantages of toroidal inductors, which are cooler, smaller and more EMI-resistant are discussed. With toroidal inductors, there is an advantage to maintaining a single layer of windings due to which the inductor behaves closer to an ideal component of lower levels of parasitic capacitance. Multi-layer toroidal inductors involve both turn-to-turn capacitance and layer-to-layer capacitance and a very significat start/finish gap capacitance since there is no start/finish gap. This increases the total amount of parasitic capacitance by orders of magnitude. This paper presents a micromachined implementation of embedded toroidal solenoids for high-performance on-chip inductors and transformers, which is highly demanded in radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). Microfabricated on CMOS compatible silicon wafers with post-CMOS micromachining techniques, the RF toroidal components can constrain the magnetic flux into a well-defined path and away from other on-chip RF devices, thereby, being in favor of decrease in RF loss, increase in Q-factor and elimination of electromagnetic interference. By using a technical combination of an anisotropic wet etch and an isotropic dry etc., the micromachined toroidal structure can be used for the formation of metal solenoid by copper electroplating. Processed under low temperature (Max 120 °C for photoresist hard-baking), the three mask microfabrication can be compatible with CMOS IC fabrication in a post-process way. The formed toroidal inductors with 4.92 nH and 8.48 nH inductance are tested, and we obtain maximum Q-factors of 25.7 and 17.8 at 3.6 GHz and 3.1 GHz, while the self-resonant frequencies are 17.3 GHz and 7.4 GHz, respectively. On the other hand, two types of toroidal transformers are also formed and tested, resulting in satisfactory RF-performance. Therefore, the novel techniques for close-loop solenoid inductors are promising for high-performance RF ICs. In electrical engineering a toroidal inductor is used to measure or monitor the electric currents of an AC power circuit as a function of the harmonic distortion [1,2]. A galvanically isolated current measurement is required, such that the advantages of lower losses nd measurement signals processed directly must be attained [3]. The ferrite core toroid inductors produces a reduced current accurately proporonal to the measured current. The toroidal inductor can be also commonly used for feedback control, and other applications [4].The design method of toroidal inductors have been developed by a non iterative method, which introduce an equation for estimation of the core size required as function of the wanted inductance and the maximum values specified for induction and current [5]. Another method solution consists in modeling inductors along with the equivalent circuits, calculation of the leakage inductance, core material characteristics, and geometrical configuretion for the minimization of volume inductors in order to simplify the design procedure [3]. Nevertheless, the trend for the current monitoring is driven by cost reduction, an increased functionality, and limited weight/space in some applications [3,4].This finally results in constantly increasing frequencies, which comes along with and increased bandwidth and poor stability.Based on electric and magnetic properties, like saturation magnetization, and toroidal-core losses, here is proposed the possibility of application of the grain-oriented silicon-iron cores for current monitoring, because these can reduce phase error and improve its accuracy in measurements of AC current at low frequencies (50 - 60 Hz) [6,7]. A simple method for toroidal-inductor design at minimum losses is suggested to calculate several inductors accepting a broad tolerance of the core material features.In general, the inductor design procedure described in literature makes use of numerous monograms, and the final result is achieved through several iterations. In special, toroidal inductors have been designed by several engineers with tedious methods [8-10]. For that reason, the lack of deeper understanding of the fundamental electromagnetic laws, it makes many engineers to consider the design of inductive components a difficult task.The purpose here is to explain a design method based on well-known tools by engineers [11]; presenting in a simple and easy way the relationships that exists between equivalent circuit and transfer function of a toroidal inductor. The proposed work is developed to meet the following objectives:1) To explain the relationship between equivalent circuit and magnetic parameters of a toroidal inductor;2) To develop the method based on normalized parameters;3) To demonstrate the method validation with a current-signal sensor and evaluate the EN-50160-2-2 standard as a function of single harmonic distortion (SHD) in home use loads [1]. The design method for an anti interference toroidal inductor is proposed as an alternative to power-quality evaluation. The method is based on well-known tools by the engineers in which is presented the relationships that exist between equivalent circuit and transfer function of a toroidal inductor. The proposed design method has been explained with normalized functions based on physical parameters of a toroidal inductor. This work presents the main arguments of the suggested methodology and as demonstration of the design method as function of normalized parameters, is developed a current-signal sensor which has been validated in the laboratory by the EN-50160-2-2 standard to evaluate the power quality in home use loads.
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The integrated impact indicator revisited We propose the I3* indicator as a non-parametric alternative to the journal impact factor (JIF) and h-index. We apply I3* to more than 10,000 journals. The results can be compared with other journal metrics. I3* is a promising variant within the general scheme of non-parametric I3 indicators introduced previously: I3* provides a single metric which correlates with both impact in terms of citations (c) and output in terms of publications (p). We argue for weighting using four percentile classes: the top-1% and top-10% as excellence indicators; the top-50% and bottom-50% as shock indicators. Like the h-index, which also incorporates both c and p, I3*-values are size-dependent; however, division of I3* by the number of publications (I3*/N) provides a size-independent indicator which correlates strongly with the 2- and 5-year journal impact factors (JIF2 and JIF5). Unlike the h-index, I3* correlates significantly with both the total number of citations and publications. The values of I3* and I3*/N can be statistically tested against the expectation or against one another using chi-squared tests or effect sizes. A template (in Excel) is provided online for relevant tests. Citations create links between publications; but to relate citations to publications as two different things, one needs a model (for example, an equation). The journal impact factor (JIF) indexes only one aspect of this relationship: citation impact. Using the h-index, papers with at least h citations are counted. One can also count papers with h2 or h/2 citations (Egghe 2008). This paper is based on a different and, in our opinion, more informative model: the Integrated Impact Indicator I3. The 2-year JIF was outlined by Garfield and Sher (1963; cf. Garfield 1955; Sher and Garfield 1965) at the time of establishing the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). JIF2 is defined as the number of citations in the current year (t) to any of a journal’s publications of the two previous years (t − 1 and t − 2), divided by the number of citable items (substantive articles, reviews, and proceedings) in the same journal in these two previous years. Although not strictly a mathematical average, JIF2 provides a functional approximation of the mean early citation rate per citable item. A JIF2 of 2.5 implies that, on average, the citable items published 1 or 2 years ago were cited two and a half times. Other JIF variants are also available; for example, JIF5 covers a 5-year window.Footnote1 The central problem that led Garfield (1972, 1979) to use the JIF when developing the Science Citation Index, was the selection of journals for inclusion in this database. He argued that citation analysis provides an excellent source of information for evaluating journals. The choice of a 2-year time window was based on experiments with the Genetics Citation Index and the early Science Citation Index (Garfield 2003, at p. 364; Martyn and Gilchrist 1968). However, one possible disadvantage of the short term (2 years) could be that “the journal impact factors enter the picture when an individual’s most recent papers have not yet had time to be cited” (Garfield 2003, p. 365; cf. Archambault and Larivière 2009). Bio-medical fields have a fast-moving research front with a short citation cycle, and JIF2 may be an appropriate measure for such fields but less so for other fields (Price 1970). In the 2007 edition of Journal Citation Reports (reissued for this reason in 2009) a 5-year JIF (JIF5, considering five instead of only two publication years) was added to balance the focus on short-term citations provided by JIF2 (Jacsó 2009; cf. Frandsen and Rousseau 2005).Footnote2 The skew in citation distributions provides another challenge to the evaluation (Seglen 1992, 1997). The mean of a skewed distribution provides less information than the median as a measure of central tendency. To address this problem, McAllister et al. (1983, at p. 207) proposed the use of percentiles or percentile classes as a non-parametric tilt indicators (Narin 1987Footnote3; see later: Bornmann and Mutz 2011; Tijssen et al. 2002). Using this non-parametric approach, and on the basis of a list of criteria provided by Leydesdorff et al. (2011), two of us first developed the Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) based on the integration of the quantile values attributed to each element in a distribution (Leydesdorff and Bornmann 2011). Since I3 is based on integration, the development of I3 presents citation analysts with a construct fundamentally different from a methodology based on averages. An analogy that demonstrates the difference between integration and averaging is given by basic mechanics: the impact of two colliding bodies is determined by their combined mass and velocity, and not by the average of their velocities. So, it can be argued that the gross impact of the journal as an entity is the combined volume and citation of its contents (articles and other items); but not an average. Journals differ both in size (the number of published items) and in the skew and kurtosis of the distribution of citations across items. A useful and informative indicator for the comparison of journal influences should respond to these differences. A citation average cannot reflect the variation in both publications and citations but an indicator based on integration can do so. One route to indexing both performance and impact via a single number has been provided by the h-index (Hirsch 2005) and its variants (e.g., Bornmann et al. 2011a, b; Egghe 2008). However, the h-index has many drawbacks, not least mathematical inconsistency (Marchant 2009; Waltman and Van Eck 2012). Furthermore, Bornmann et al. (2008) showed that the h-index is mainly determined by the number of papers (and not by citation impact). In other words, the impact dimension of a publication set may not be properly measured using the h-index. One aspect that I3 has in common with the h-index is that the focus is no longer on impact as an attribute but on the information production process (Egghe and Rousseau 1990; Ye et al. 2017). This approach could be applied not only to journals but also to other sets of documents with citations such as the research portfolios of departments or universities. In this study, however, we focus on journal indicators.
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Refrigerators Now here's a cool idea: a metal box that helps your food last longer! Have you ever stopped to think how a refrigerator keeps cool, calm, and collected even in the blistering heat of summer? Food goes bad because bacteria breed inside it. But bacteria grow less quickly at lower temperatures, so the cooler you can keep food, the longer it will last. A food meat refrigerator is a machine that keeps food cool with some very clever science. All the time your refrigerator is humming away, liquids are turning into gases, water is turning into ice, and your food is staying deliciously fresh. Let's take a closer look at how a refrigerator works! What’s your favorite late night snack – that go-to treat that melts away the troubles of the day as you curl up in front of the TV? Perhaps it’s a creamy bowl of Rocky Road or maybe some delicious, spicy Szechuan chicken left over from a recent take-out feast. Refrigerator-finds like these may make you feel bad about indulging in guilty pleasures, but at least you don't have to feel bad about how high your energy bill will be to cure your cravings. That’s because of innovative technology and meaningful energy conservation standards put into place by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Building Technologies Program. In recent decades, the Energy Department has led technological innovation that vastly improved the energy efficiency of our refrigerators and freezers (and thousands of other household appliances). As a result, it’s a lot easier on your pocket and on the environment to keep that ice cream at peak frosty perfection. In fact, today’s refrigerators use only about 25 percent of the energy that was required to power models built in 1975. Even while continually improving efficiency to meet standards, refrigerators have increased in size by almost 20 percent, have added energy-using features such as through-the-door ice, and provide more benefits than ever before. Refrigerators today can be customized to fit consumer needs with touch-screen displays, glass doors, or even a beer tap. The dramatic rise in efficiency began in response to the oil and energy crises of the 1970s when refrigerators typically cost about $1,300 when adjusted for inflation, a hefty price to pay for an energy waster. Refrigeration labels and standards have improved efficiency by two percent per year since 1975. Due to research, useful tools, partnerships with utilities and other organizations, and market initiatives that helped enable top open air curtain refrigerator and other appliance standards, the Energy Department has helped avoid the construction of up to 31 1-GW power plants with the energy saved since the first Federal standards in 1987. That’s the same amount of electricity consumed by Spain annually. The Department will soon have strengthened the standards for household refrigerators three times. Each time, manufacturers have responded with new innovations that enabled their products to meet the new requirements and often to exceed them. Refrigerators that performed above and beyond the minimum standards qualified for the ENERGY STAR label, motivated consumers to care about energy usage, and primed the market for continued efficiency improvements. Decades worth of progressive energy-efficiency standards for refrigerators have translated into big savings for consumers. Compared to refrigerators of the 1970s, today's refrigerators save the nation about $20 billion per year in energy costs, or $150 per year for the average American family. The next proposed increase in refrigerator and freezer efficiency -- scheduled to take effect in 2014 -- will save the nation almost four and a half quadrillion BTUs over 30 years. That’s three times more than the total energy currently used by all refrigeration products in U.S. homes annually. It’s also the equivalent amount of energy savings that could be used to power a third of Africa for an entire year The Energy Department is continuing to invest even more in future innovations for energy efficient products. So go ahead and indulge with those late night snacks and frozen treats. Your fridge has you covered. To learn more about Appliance Standards and how they save consumers money go to the Building Technologies Program website. In this position, Roland Risser was responsible for leading all of EERE's applied research, development and demonstration for renewable energy, including geothermal, solar, and wind and water power.In this position, Roland Risser was responsible for leading all of EERE's applied research, development and demonstration for renewable energy, including geothermal, solar, and wind and water power.
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What is a Filter Press? In some batch filtration processes, highly permeable suspensions dewater fast compared to the rest of the process. This work explores the impact of fast-filtering compressible materials on the throughput of fixed-chamber filter presses. The dewatering properties for a compressible yet highly permeable minerals processing slurry are used as inputs to a standard filter press model to explore the effects of operating and design parameters. For fast-filtering materials, maximum throughput is achieved with wide cavities and minimal handling time, while membrane resistance can be significant. Pressure affects the maximum achievable concentration, as given by the strength of the material. Overall, this work demonstrates the combined use of material characterisation and device modelling for filter press optimisation. This article answers three common inquiries. What is a filter press? How does a filter press work? What is a filter press used for? We’ll also give you some advice on sizing your equipment (including your feed pump). Our Sales and Service Team is looking forward to answering any other questions you might have. WHAT IS A FILTER PRESS? A pressure leaf filter is a batch operation, fixed volume machine that separates liquids and solids using pressure filtration. A slurry is pumped into the filter press and dewatered under pressure. It is used for water and wastewater treatment in a variety of different applications ranging from industrial to municipal. M.W. Watermark manufacturers filter presses ranging from .06-600 cubic feet. Slurry is pumped into the filter press. The solids are distributed evenly during the feed (fill) cycle. Solids begin to build on the filter cloth. Most of the solid/liquid separation is done by the filter cake building on the cloths. At first some fines may pass through the cloth (1), but eventually the solids begin to form a layer on the filter cloth (2) much like a pre-coat. That layer traps the fine particles and forms a filter cake (3). As the vertical pressure leaf filter builds pressure, the solids build within the chambers until they are completely full of filter cake. When the chambers are full, the fill cycle is complete. The filtrate (liquid) exits the filter pack (plates) through the corner ports into the manifold; when the correct valves in the manifold are open, the filtrate exits the press through one single point, the filtrate outlet. HOW LONG DOES A FILTER PRESS CYCLE TAKE? The Total Cycle time is the Fill Cycle time plus a constant. For presses of 125 cubic feet and under this constant is usually around 45 minutes. This is the time required to close/open the press, perform the Air Blow Down and discharge the filter cake. If the particular application requires operations such as Core Blow or Cake Wash, for example, this constant is longer. HOW LONG DOES A FILL CYCLE TAKE? The Fill Cycle is dependent on many parameters. The most important parameter is the nature of material to be dewatered. A sand slurry releases its water readily and dewaters quickly. On the other hand, an Aluminum Hydroxide waste slurry from beverage can manufacture does not readily release its water and dewaters slowly. The next most important parameter is the concentration of the solids by weight in the slurry. The Fill Cycle for a 5% solids slurry is about twice as long as a 10% solids slurry (with all other parameters being equal). This is because the press has to process half of the water to fill with solids.
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60 years of integrated circuits An integrated circuit is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. Sometimes called a chip or microchip. The invention of the integrated circuit made technologies of the Information Age feasible. ICs are now used extensively in all walks of life, from cars to toasters to amusement park rides. Integrated circuits (ICs) are self-contained circuits with many separate components such as transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors etched into a tiny silicon chip. Related Journals of Integrated circuit Journal of Physical Chemistry & Biophysics, Journal of Electrical & Electronic Systems, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Journal of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Proceedings of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference. On 12 September 1958, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments demonstrated a working integrated circuit1. The circuit was a phase-shift oscillator that used transistor, resistor and capacitor elements built from a single piece of germanium; the elements were connected into a circuit with the help of thin gold wires. A few months later, Robert Noyce, working at Fairchild Semiconductor, proposed a monolithic integrated circuit2. This planar design was based on silicon and used lines of aluminium, deposited on the insulating silicon dioxide layer that can form on the surface of silicon wafers, to connect the different circuit elements in the single chip. By 1960, a team of engineers at Fairchild Semiconductor had turned this design into a reality. Electronic components, which had previously been discrete units connected with individual wires, could now be integrated into the same piece of semiconducting material. In the 60 years since Kilby’s initial demonstration, progress in STM8S207C8T6 has been astounding. Noyce would go on to co-found Intel, and just how far the company — and the design of integrated circuits — has come in that time is highlighted in this issue of Nature Electronics. In a News & Views article, Suman Datta of the University of Notre Dame reports on Intel’s 10-nanometre logic technology. With this latest design iteration3, the company has introduced a number of unconventional approaches to improve transistor density and performance, including a technique to reduce the spacing between cells and a method to add gate contacts directly over the active area. As a result, they can deliver around 100 million transistors per square millimetre — a transistor density that is 2.7 times higher than that of their previous 14-nm technology, which was introduced in 2014. At this level of complexity, developments are far from straightforward. Earlier this year, it emerged that Intel have encountered problems in the manufacturing of the 10-nm chips, leading to delays in mass production4; the chips are now expected to ship in volume in 2019. And in the past few weeks, GlobalFoundries announced5 that they would stop development of their 7-nm chips (thought to be comparable to Intel’s 10-nm technology). The continued scaling of silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology beyond these levels is also likely to prove increasingly difficult. But, at the same time, the applications of computers are evolving, and demand the processing of ever larger amounts of data. As a result, the search for strategies and materials beyond silicon, which could help create the next generation of devices and integrated circuits, remains vital. Carbon nanotubes are among the contenders fighting for a place in the future of electronics, and in our Reverse Engineering column in this issue, Cees Dekker recounts how the first carbon nanotube transistor was built back in 1998. A related contender in this fight is two-dimensional materials, as well as the vertical stacks of different two-dimensional materials known as van der Waals heterostructures. These materials have been used to build a range of promising devices and some basic circuits — even a microprocessor6. The unique challenges involved in trying to build practical integrated circuits from two-dimensional materials are just starting to be addressed, but innovative ideas are emerging. For example, in an Article in this issue, Moon-Ho Jo and colleagues illustrate how a scanning light probe can be used to write monolithic integrated circuits For ST on two-dimensional molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2). The researchers — who are based at the Institute for Basic Science in Pohang, Pohang University of Science and Technology, the Korea Institute of Materials Science, and Yonsei University — first pattern gold electrodes onto the MoTe2. Then, by shining the light probe (a visible laser) onto the electrodes, the semiconducting MoTe2 beneath can be converted from an n-type semiconductor to a p-type semiconductor. (With silicon CMOS technology, such doping is typically achieved using ion implantation.) The approach allows the two-dimensional material to be doped precisely and quickly, and Jo and colleagues use it to create arrays of bipolar junction transistors and circular diodes.
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Engineering Essentials: Fundamentals of Hydraulic Pumps When a hydraulic pump operates, it performs two functions. First, its mechanical action creates a vacuum at the pump inlet which allows atmospheric pressure to force liquid from the reservoir into the inlet line to the pump. Second, its mechanical action delivers this liquid to the pump outlet and forces it into the hydraulic system. A pump produces liquid movement or flow: it does not generate pressure. It produces the flow necessary for the development of pressure which is a function of resistance to fluid flow in the system. For example, the pressure of the fluid at the pump outlet is zero for a pump not connected to a system (load). Further, for a pump delivering into a system, the pressure will rise only to the level necessary to overcome the resistance of the load. Classification of pumps All pumps may be classified as either positive-displacement or non-positive-displacement. Most pumps used in hydraulic systems are positive-displacement. A non-positive-displacement pump produces a continuous flow. However, because it does not provide a positive internal seal against slippage, its output varies considerably as pressure varies. Centrifugal and propeller pumps are examples of non-positive-displacement pumps. If the output port of a non-positive-displacement pump were blocked off, the pressure would rise, and output would decrease to zero. Although the pumping element would continue moving, flow would stop because of slippage inside the pump. In a positive-displacement pump, slippage is negligible compared to the pump's volumetric output flow. If the output port were plugged, pressure would increase instantaneously to the point that the pump's pumping element or its case would fail (probably explode, if the drive shaft did not break first), or the pump's prime mover would stall. Positive-displacement principle A positive-displacement pump is one that displaces (delivers) the same amount of liquid for each rotating cycle of the pumping element. Constant delivery during each cycle is possible because of the close-tolerance fit between the pumping element and the pump case. That is, the amount of liquid that slips past the pumping element in a positive-displacement pump is minimal and negligible compared to the theoretical maximum possible delivery. The delivery per cycle remains almost constant, regardless of changes in pressure against which the pump is working. Note that if fluid slippage is substantial, the harvester hydraulic pump is not operating properly and should be repaired or replaced. Positive-displacement pumps can be of either fixed or variable displacement. The output of a fixed displacement pump remains constant during each pumping cycle and at a given pump speed. The output of a variable displacement pump can be changed by altering the geometry of the displacement chamber. Other names to describe these pumps are hydrostatic for positive-displacement and hydrodynamic pumps for non-positive-displacement. Hydrostatic means that the pump converts mechanical energy to hydraulic energy with comparatively small quantity and velocity of liquid. In a hydrodynamic pump, liquid velocity and movement are large; output pressure actually depends on the velocity at which the liquid is made to flow.
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What is a 3-Phase Motor and How Does it Work? Three-phase motors (also annotated numerically as 3-phase motors) are widely used in industry and have become the workhorse of many mechanical and electromechanical systems because of their relative simplicity, proven reliability, and long service life. Three-phase motors are one example of a type of induction motor, also known as an asynchronous motor, that operates using the principals of electromagnetic induction. While there are also single-phase induction motors available, those types of induction motors are used less frequently in industrial applications but are widely used in domestic applications such as in vacuum cleaners, refrigerator compressors, and air conditioners, owing to the use of single-phase AC power in homes and offices. In this article, we will discuss what a three-phase motor is and describe how it operates. To access other resources about motors, consult one of our other motor guides covering AC motors, DC motors, Induction motors, or the more general article on the types of motors. A full list of related motor articles is found in the section on related articles. To understand single phase motor, it is useful to first understand three-phase power. In electrical power generation, alternating current (AC) that is created by a generator has the characteristic that its amplitude and direction changes with time. If shown graphically with the amplitude on the y-axis and time on the x-axis, the relationship between the voltage or current vs. time would resemble a sine wave as shown below: Electrical power carried to homes is single-phase, meaning that there is one current-carrying conductor plus a neutral connection and a ground connection. In three-phase power, which is used in industrial and commercial settings to run larger machinery that has greater power needs, there are three conductors of electrical current, each of which is operating at a phase difference of 120o of 2π/3 radians apart. If viewed graphically, each phase would appear as a separate sine wave, which then combines as shown in the image below: Three-phase motors are powered from the electrical voltage and current that is generated as three-phase input power and is then used to produce mechanical energy in the form of a rotating motor shaft. What is a 3-Phase Motor? Three-phase motors are a type of AC motor that is a specific example of a reducer motor. These motors can be either an induction motor (also called an asynchronous motor) or a synchronous motor. The motors consist of three main components – the stator, the rotor, and the enclosure. The stator consists of a series of alloy steel laminations around which are wound with wire to form induction coils, one coil for each phase of the electrical power source. The stator coils are energized from the three-phase power source. The rotor also contains induction coils and metal bars connected to form a circuit. The rotor surrounds the motor shaft and is the motor component that rotates to produce the mechanical energy output of the motor. The enclosure of the motor holds the rotor with its motor shaft on a set of bearings to reduce the friction of the rotating shaft. The enclosure has end caps that hold the bearing mounts and house a fan that is attached to the motor shaft which spins as the motor shaft turns. The spinning fan draws ambient air from outside the enclosure and forces the air across the stator and rotor to cool the motor components and dissipate heat that is generated in the various coils from the coil resistance. The enclosure also typically has raised mechanical fins on the exterior that serve to further conduct heat to the outside air. The end cap will also provide a location to house the electrical connections for the three-phase power to the motor.
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When you think of healthcare supplies, what comes to mind first? A stethoscope to hear a heartbeat. A syringe to give a needed shot. Ahhhhhh, the “open wide” tongue depressor! But what about the Medical Tapes? It may not pop to mind first, but this versatile tool is incredibly important in the medical field. There are many varieties from which to choose and many companies that convert medical adhesive tape for wound care. Medical Adhesive Tape 101 Medical adhesive tape, or surgical tape, is used to attach Medical Bandages, gauze, and other dressings to skin around wounds. Most adhesive tapes are a type of pressure-sensitive tape; i.e., tape that sticks and stays in place with firm pressure. There’s no need for heat activation or a solvent. Medical adhesive tape can be made from various materials, but most are breathable for comfort and ease of use. Types of Medical Adhesive Tape In the medical field, different types of adhesive Wound Dressings are used for different things. Some are made of softer materials, such as cotton; others are more elastic to support flexibility. Here are some of the most common types of medical adhesive tape and how they differ. Micropore Paper Tape — Commonly used to secure bandages and dressings to skin without leaving a sticky residue, micropore paper tape is hypoallergenic and can be used long-term, without fear of skin irritation. Its adhesive sticks to the skin, underlying tape, or directly to dressing materials. Tiny holes, or micropores, in the tape, make it breathable (speeding up healing), and it’s easy to tear (ideal for emergency situations). On the ambulance, this was the one that always ran out first, leaving a box full of useless, hard-to-tear tapes for the unlucky guy who got there last. When it comes to versatility, efficiency, and overall quality, few medical tapes outperform Medical Plasters. It is the strongest adhesive tape for skin that I have found. Sticks to anything: While it’s specifically designed for medical purposes, it will stick to anything. It needs to be applied dry, but it sticks through sweat, hair, and blood no problem. Waterproof: You can go swimming or take a shower and this medical tape will stay on. Made with pores: It is covered in a grid-like pattern of tiny holes that give it some unique properties. Sweat and body fluid will pass right through it without causing it to come off. Air can reach the skin underneath it. Its pores allow you to tear in a straight line both across and lengthwise in order to customize the width. Easy to tear: Unlike many cloth tapes, 3M Transpore rips easily using your fingers both horizontally and vertically. Strongest adhesive tape for skin: If you need to take it off, you don't necessarily want the strongest tape, but sometimes the strongest is the best. Surgical Care is an indispensable element of every home medicine cabinet. Measuring body temperature correctly greatly facilitates differential diagnoses and is a guide to taking antipyretics (substances that reduce fever). Cleaning Wipe is a convenient way to keep your house in tip-top shape. However, not all wipes are created equal. While some wipes are equipped to disinfect surfaces, others are only meant for cleaning. Keep in mind that doing the latter is more important than the former, because disinfecting surfaces should always be the last step in any cleaning routine,1 and it isn’t always necessary.
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Be it carry bags or otherwise, with the escalating concerns for the rapidly deteriorating environment, it has become almost our responsibility to switch over to more eco friendly life styles. One way that we can do so is by using more eco friendly products. Given the environmental hazards that the huge use of plastic bags cause there is no doubt that you could help in preventing this by using the very eco friendly Non Woven Bags and plastic bags. You would be aware that paper bags are environmentally friendly, so let us first try and understand what non woven bags are. Non Woven bags: What are they? According to Wikipedia Non-woven fabrics could broadly be defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments and also by perforating films. This is done mechanically, thermally or chemically. These types of fabrics are greatly being used in the manufacture of bags owing to their eco friendly properties. Let us now understand why Non Woven Flat Bags and paper bags are considered very environmentally friendly. Why they are environmentally friendly? It is now a fairly established fact that both paper bags as well Non Woven Tote Bags are very eco friendly. There are plenty of reasons for the same as well. They are recyclableThe first reason why non woven bags and paper bags are environmentally friendly is the fact that they are made from recycled materials. The percentage of such fabric of course varies depending on the strength needed. However since they are recyclable means that they cause little or no pollution and thus is great for our environment. You would know that a large number of both paper bags manufacturers as well as Non Woven Cooler Bags manufacturer have come up in recent times. So it must be your endeavor to support them so that we could move towards a better environment. The manufacturing process helps conserve natural resourcesThe manufacturing process of manufacturing paper bags and Non Woven Garment Bags is simple and is made from resources which are readily available and help to preserve both the natural resources as well as energy. All in all the paper bag manufacturers in Mumbai claims that it will cause less or little pollution which is very helpful to preserve our environment. Use helps to cut down on toxic wastesSince paper bags and non woven bags are eco friendly they leave no toxic wastes which are very harmful for our environment as a whole. Global warming, air and water pollution are just someof the adverse impacts that plastic bag production and usagecauses. Plastics you must realize are not bio-degradable & are not only choking our environment & but also irreparably damaging the sea & marine life. Thus Reusable paper and Non Woven Fabric bags are the best alternative to save our ailing environment. In conclusion we can indeed see that there is much need to protect our environment. Replacing the use of plastic bags with paper and non woven bags can be the best solution for the same. In the past couple of years, Drawstring Bags have become a trendy item because of their versatility and their customizability. They have a long and interesting history. In this article we’ll show you where you can purchase one or show you how to make your own drawstring bag. They come in several different materials, sizes, and you can use them for a variety of occasions. Drawstring bags or cinch bags have been in use for centuries. There are ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs depicting men with small pouches tied around their waists with a long cord. Even though they’ve been around for so long, they didn't begin to gain popularity until the 13th and 14th century. The first drawstring bag was an ancient cloth or leather pouch that men traditionally used to carry coins or their valuables.
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What is Titanium Metal? History Titanium metal, with the symbol Ti, is the ninth most abundant element in the earth‘s crust. It does not occur in large deposits, yet small amounts of titanium are found in almost every rock. Titanium is a shiny grey metal with a low corrosion rate and high strength; it is used for various applications. It was discovered by William Gregor, an English chemist and mineralogist, in 1791; he thought it was a compound. In 1795, he realized it was an independent element. Later, it was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a German chemist, after the Titans of Greek Mythology. Periodic Placement Titanium Material is placed in D-Block in the periodic table as the first element. It is classified as a transition metal with the atomic number 22, which means it has 22 electrons and 22 protons; it has an atomic weight of 47.867 Daltons. Titanium belongs to period 4 and group 4 of the periodic table because of its electronic configuration. The last two electrons of titanium metal reside in the fourth orbital, making the configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2. This electronic configuration explains the chemical bonds of the element and some other properties. Occurrence Titanium Products constitute 0.44 percent of the earth‘s crust, and it is widely distributed. Ninety percent (90%) of the titanium occurs in the form of ilmenite minerals in the earth's crust. Ilmenite minerals are compounds of iron, titanium, and oxygen called iron titanium oxide with the symbol FeTiO3. The remaining amount of titanium is found in the form of anatase, perovskite, rutile, leucoxene, sphene, and other minerals. These minerals are found in the form of compounds in sand, rocks, soils, and clays. It can also be found elsewhere in nature: in plants, natural waters, animals, stars, and meteorites. Nickel Nickel (Ni) is a naturally occurring metallic chemical element. Its atomic number on the periodic table is 28 and its atomic weight is 58.71. Nickel is essential for healthy plant life. For that reason, it is found not only in rock, but also in most fruits, vegetables, nuts and the food products derived from them, like wine and chocolate. Because it is naturally occurring, it must be mined from deep within the earth instead of synthetically created in a lab. Called nickel ore, there are two main types of ore deposits: laterites, which are mainly composed of nickeliferous limonite and garnierite, and magmatic sulfide deposits, which are primarily composed of the ore mineral pentlandite. In general, nickel has a silvery-white color, high toughness, is ferromagnetic and has excellent resistance to corrosion and rust. Some of its additional beneficial properties include its malleability, ductility, alloy-ability and high heat resistance—it has a melting point of 1453 degrees Celsius. Applications Nickel Material is valued for its positive properties, detailed in the section above. It is used to make products and both decorative and functional coatings. It is also used extensively to make alloys, which are in turn used to make products of all kinds. Since nickel can be found in a wide range of metals, it is utilized in a correspondingly vast number of industries including currency and coinage, consumer products, healthcare, chemical, industrial, food and beverage, electronics, military, transport, aerospace, architecture and marine.
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There are many methods provided by manufacturers to facilitate Incubator self-decontamination. Three of the most common methods are: UV sterilization Moist heat sterilization Dry heat sterilization This article will examine these three types of sterilization in detail. 1. UV Sterilization DNA nucleotides harbor the kinds of conjugated bonds that absorb UV light. UV sterilization generates an antimicrobial effect by the damage it causes to a microorganism’s DNA when aromatic nucleotides absorb high energy photons. This can make UV sterilization an effective solution to reduce contamination in an incubator chamber. However, there are significant drawbacks. Your light source would need to have unrestricted access to all surfaces of the Multifunctional Incubator chamber, shelves, and shelf mounting hardware. Shadowed regions will not be decontaminated by UV light. Also, a common method for microorganisms to survive UV exposure is through enhanced DNA repair mechanisms. In this case, survivors of a UV cycle will be more likely to survive repeat treatments. Plus, UV light is generally not effective in destroying endospores. Microorganisms which survive the UV decontamination process will potentially have the opportunity to form monocultures and increase their likelihood to reach quorum. This is unless UV sterilization is combined with other methods of incubator decontamination, such as a tear-down and washing of all surfaces, a dispersed chemical treatment, or an effective high-heat cycle. 2. Moist Heat Sterilization Moist heat decontamination is often employed on incubators that are not designed to safely reach the high temperatures needed for an effective dry-heat sterilization regime. This may be due to a risk of damage to internal components or the risk of overheating the incubator’s outer body. Traditional Autoclaves operate by heating to ~121°C and applying elevated steam pressure to increase rates of thermal transmission to targeted contaminant organisms. A moist heat decontamination cycle performed above but close to 100°C and at ambient pressure is guaranteed to be less effective than an autoclave, and does not meet any medical organizational criteria for SAL6 sterilization. SAL6 represents a Sterility Assurance Level of 10-6 meaning you get a Log6 reduction of microorganisms. Interestingly, the archaea Geogemma barossii, better known as “Strain 121,” is a species of microorganism that has been shown to grow and reproduce successfully in a pressurized Horizontal Pressure Steam Sterilizer at 121°C. What are Drying Ovens Used for? Despite the fact that most people associate the word oven with the benefits of baking, industrial models are present in food manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and even in painting processes. The main job of an industrial Drying Oven is to remove moisture from substances or products. This means that it can be used for evaporation, incubation, sterilization, baking, and many other procedures. Keep in mind that industrial ovens vary in size, capacity, and shape, depending on what they are used for, so the perfect model will depend on the application it is given. Types of Industrial Drying Ovens Even though industrial Hot Air Drying Ovens share the same core concept, there are dozens of different types of technologies available. Industrial ovens vary in heating mechanisms, time and volume capacities, and other key elements, depending on your industry. Keep in mind that even if there isn’t a standard design that suits your operation, a custom industrial oven is a great way to significantly improve your factory’s efficiency. Conveyor Dryers Conveyor dryers are used in processes that require continuous production of small and medium-sized products. They also make a great choice if your factory employs automated mass production as they fit perfectly in most production lines. Vacuum Drying Oven These versatile machines are used mostly in engineering, research, and other industries that may require drying in a low-pressure environment. Vacuum Drying Ovens also minimize oxidation and may even include an automated digital interface for monitoring purposes. Convection Drying Ovens Convection drying ovens rely on high temperatures to gently accelerate the dehydration process. These pieces of equipment make a great choice for pre-heating, aging, baking, sterilization, and thermal storage. What is a Test Chamber? A Test Chamber is a managed and controlled environment used to test the endurance, stability, and practicality of equipment, products, and chemicals. They are a controlled enclosure that mimics the effects of environmental conditions that a product may encounter during its usage. Programmed test chambers create extreme temperature variations, moist or humid conditions, and radical altitude variances. Aside from environmental conditions, test chambers can be designed and set to push the limits of a product through the use of physical forces such as inertia, vibration, and destructive impact. The burst test, seen in this image, determines the amount of resistant pressure this sample of cardboard can endure before it fails, an example of the types of endurance testing performed in Scalable Test Chambers. Some of the other purposes for test chambers are: Prepping a product for additional testing Stand-alone testing for combinations of different materials Stress screening to help identify product issues while still at the prototype stage What are the Designs of Test Chambers? Walk-in Test Chamber designs vary depending on the types of test they perform, which can be very complex and complicated or extremely simple. They come in various sizes to fit the manufacturer and the desired conditions to be tested such as a bench top for testing small items and room size to fit a car. Though size and types of environments are a factor, modern test chambers have technological controls that can provide instantaneous data and read outs that give technicians the opportunity to adjust and change conditions in the middle of a process. In a steady test chamber, pictured below, a specific set of variables are programmed into the chamber and remain unchanged for extended periods.
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By sales and acclamation, history and mythology, the pickup truck is the most popular vehicle in America and has been for decades. We are told electric pickups will be the next big thing: The Tesla Cybertruck, the Ford F-150 Lightning and the GMC Hummer EV are online and on their way. But recall that GMC offered a full line of electric N-Series Light-Duty Trucks—“operated by Edison current”—in 1913. These were designed by John M. Lansden, who had run an electric car company in Newark, New Jersey, as early as 1904. Bought out by Edison himself in 1908, Lansden made electric ambulances and taxicabs, buses and brewery wagons. The company stumbled financially and Lansden left to run electric truck development for GMC. By 1911, there were eight models of heavy-duty commercial electric trucks available under GMC’s “Rapid” nameplate. The first truck ever powered by internal combustion was designed and built in 1896 by Gottlieb Daimler of Germany. It looked like a rear-engine hay wagon. The first American pickup trucks were homemade and came on the scene at almost the same moment as the car. Farmers built cargo boxes onto the rear end of their automobiles, especially after Henry Ford’s Model T arrived in 1908. A few planks of oak or hickory and some angle irons from the local blacksmith was all it took. By the end of World War I, demand for light trucks was soaring. Ransom E. Olds was building his REO Speedwagon, and Ford had launched a line of factory-made F-Series Medium-Duty Trucks. In 1918, Chevrolet started building factory pickups, and suddenly the light truck sales race was on. A federal report issued six years later showed a sharp decline in the number of farm horses, and their individual cash value. Horsepower now officially came from Detroit. For decades, a pickup was as simple as a shoe. Four wheels, an engine and a frame with a place to sit and a box to carry things. As humble as the folks who drove it. In John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath, the Joads rode west out of the Dust Bowl looking for work in a homemade pickup truck, a cut-down 1926 Hudson Super Six sedan. “The house was dead, and the fields were dead; but GIGA-Series Heavy-Duty Trucks were the active thing, the living principle,” Steinbeck wrote. “The ancient Hudson, with bent and scarred radiator screen, with grease in dusty globules at the worn edges of every moving part, with hub caps gone and caps of red dust in their places—this was the new hearth, the living center of the family; half passenger car and half truck, high-sided and clumsy.” After World War II, with the arrival of prosperity and television and television advertising, the pickup became a vehicle for self-expression, an act of imagination owing as much to John Ford as to Henry Ford. The mythology of the West became the defining signifier of network TV schedules, from “Wagon Train” to “Gunsmoke” to “Bonanza,” and Crane Truck advertising was cowboys and big hats and big payloads, leather seating surfaces and rawboned ranch hands, Monument Valley and available power windows. Then the idea of the truck overtook the Semi-Trailer truck itself. Tow the camper, the boat, the trailer; carry the sheetrock and the prize bull; the turnips and the fly rods and the paneling and the lumber and the plumbing, sure, but the truck was really a mirror in which we saw ourselves. Look out for that one-ton load of cinderblocks! Truck commercials reached a postmodern perfection of self-reference when a Ford carried a Chevy up a mountain. Not all model lines would survive. The Luv and the Raider are gone, and the Rapid and the Reliance of a hundred years ago, too; the Honcho and the DeSoto, the Kaiser and the Fargo and the Travelette all gone with them. Even the Studebaker Champ, the most beautiful Special Purpose Trucks ever made, is left to us only as a glorious 1960s museum piece. Somehow “luxury trucks” came and went this century, the LT and the EXT unloved oxymorons, victims of cognitive dissonance. The letters and numbers kept climbing—the Cs, the Ds, the Fs, the 250s and the 2500s and 3500s, world without end, blurring into an alphabet of GT-Rs and R/Ts and SRTs, TRDs and SVTs and SSRs—until trucks got so tough the names became a warning, a threat: Ram. Raptor. Gladiator. Rampage! More than three million Pickup Trucks were sold in the United States last year. Farm trucks, ranch trucks, city trucks, country trucks. Trucks put to every purpose—or no purpose at all: hot rod trucks and monster trucks, stadium racers and salt flats streamliners. Lately, it seems they are sold into spotless suburban driveways and carry nothing heavier in the cargo bed than a yoga mat. The pickup truck is the rolling avatar of our national work ethic: forever ranching, forever farming, forever building the next America, the work as constant as the weather. And in the Pure Electric Truck, this country has stored its vast surplus of yippee-ki-yay since the late 1940s. Even empty, the pickup is filled with meaning, and in its skyrocketing expense and elaboration it embodies the tension between our humble pioneer ideals and our end-of-innocence decadence, our modesty and our vanity.
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It all started at a hackathon organised by THE Port at CERN’s IdeaSquare in 2014. The event combined technology and science to develop solutions to pressing humanitarian challenges, and it was here that the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) challenged participants to improve the current Funeral Body Bags design. A deceased person’s body holds strong symbolism in various cultures, in relation to funerary customs, as it is used as a direct representation of the individual. Its absence, such as in disaster scenarios, may cause legal and sociocultural issues. This absence also creates uncertainty regarding the life status of their absent close one. Thus, the identification of bodies in forensic cases is considered extremely important in providing closure. Consequently, Mortuary Body Bags play a vital role in early coordination stages of disaster victim identification as it is a tool that allows for storage, isolation and transportation of the body of a deceased person. Since its inception, the standard body bag has been subject to minor modifications and so far has limited adaptability in forensic contexts. Particularly in unrefrigerated conditions, which is often the case in humanitarian settings. The request to redesign the Cadaver Body Bags came from the forensic unit of the ICRC, in order to improve the success rate of victim identification in natural disasters and war. The multidisciplinary team of individuals who met at CERN’s hackathon event has now expanded into an association with a full-scale project. The initial design was supported by the ICRC who encouraged the pursuit of the development of an improved prototype, working towards its industrial manufacturing. The design is a new forensic technology that improves the current standard body bag, while remaining affordable and functional, termed the Better Body Bag (BBB). The primary goal of the Better Body Bag is to delay decomposition and improve visual identification by influencing three key variables: Firstly, the better Emergency Body Bags can hold a vacuum. The mechanism that is used limits the body from interacting with an exterior environment, including oxygen, restricting aerobic bacterial proliferation or insects. This vacuum is easily created with the help of a standard hand pump that does not require electrical infrastructure. Secondly, it controls the temperature inside the bag by having an outer light-deflecting layer. Thirdly, it controls bodily fluids associated with decomposition by using a superabsorber pad, preventing any leaking in the rare event of a puncture. Additionally, it aims to improve the working conditions of humanitarian actors that manage the dead after catastrophes or armed conflicts. The bag has a closing mechanism that provides a hermetic seal, barrier to gases, odours and organisms that can emanate from inside the bag. An additional improvement of the BBB can be seen in its practicality in forensic procedures by supporting the handling, documentation, and identification of the deceased. A patented foil makes the bag 30% lighter than the existing model. Furthermore, this design decreases the likelihood of ruptures and punctures. Preliminary biological and load testing, undertaken by the forensic department of the International Committee of the Red Cross who have been financially supportive and to whom the first 100 prototype bags were provided, demonstrates that the bag successfully held a vacuum and slowed decomposition. A peer-reviewed research study is underway, in association with the Taphonomic Research in Anthropology: Centre for Experimental Studies of the University of Central Lancashire, to verify results and explore the full potential of the better body bag. The Taphonomic research will focus on molecular as well as whole body preservation in the new Medical Body Bags using three time interval points in two separate locations across two continents with differing temperature points (United Kingdom and Thailand). A future blogpost from us will provide further details on the process. Through this HIF-funded project, SSRa will now focus on industrial manufacturing of the Better Body Bag, where the first 10,000 bags deployed in the field will be specifically monitored by ICRC. Regular feedback and improvement circles will ensure optimal performance and usability in the real deployment conditions. We look forward to advancing in this project and sharing with you, in the form of blog posts, the reflections we make along the way.
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It is clear that packaging plays a large role in the perceived value of a product and as a whole, the packaging industry really hasn’t changed too much in the past years, compared to the constant innovations made in portable technology. With all the packaging and Color Box choices available in today’s market, it often becomes difficult to select the most appropriate packaging solution for your product. Let’s take a look at some of the different types of packaging options you can use to enhance your product & customer experience! Paperboard boxes Paperboard Gift Box is a paper-based material that is lightweight, yet strong. It can be easily cut and manipulated to create custom shapes and structures. These characteristics make it ideal to be used in personalized packaging. It is made by turning fibrous materials that come from wood or from recycled waste paper into pulp, and then bleaching it. Paperboard packaging comes in various grades, each suitable for different packaging requirements. SBS (or solid bleached sulfate) paperboard can be used for packing cosmetics, medicines, milk and juice, cosmetics, frozen food and more. Choosing kraft, or CUK (coated unbleached kraft) paperboard packaging is for those who prefer the natural and environmentally-friendly look of recycled paper, which can be used for similar packaging applications. Kraft is often seen to be less resistant to moisture, making it less suitable for food-related products, or frozen-goods packaging. With the right combination of design options, paperboard packaging can look high-end, without high-end pricing. Corrugated boxes Corrugated boxes simply refer to what is commonly known as: Cardboard. Corrugated boxes are the ones many probably consider as ‘cardboard’ as it produces the large shipping, shoe & storage boxes. What a lot of people do not realize is that corrugated boxes also come in different types depending on the durability and strength of the Food Packaging Box. Identifying a certain corrugated material, however, is easy. How do you determine the material? Through its corrugated medium (also known as fluting). Identifying a corrugated material is easy. It consists of 3 layers of paper, an outside liner, an inside liner and a corrugated medium (also known as fluting). The corrugated medium that gives it strength and rigidity. Rigid boxes I’m sure you’ve always wondered the type of box they used to package iPhones or those luxury retail products such as Rolex, Tiffany & Co and Marc Jacobs. You have a sense that it’s a type of cardboard but still wasn’t sure because of its durable and premium appearance. This type of cardboard material is called a rigid box. A rigid box is made out of a highly condensed paperboard that is 4 times thicker than the paperboard used in the construction of a standard folding carton. The easiest real-world example of rigid boxes are the Scodix Craft Boxes which holds Apple’s iPhones and iPads, which are 2 piece setup rigid boxes. Compared to paperboard and corrugated boxes, rigid boxes are definitely among the most expensive box styles. The rigid boxes usually do not require dies that are expensive or massive machinery and are often hand-made. Their non-collapsible nature also gives them a higher volume during shipping, which easily incurs higher shipping fees.
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Everyone who has hair, brushes their hair, though you may never have given much thought to the kind of brush you use. Using the right Hair Brush for your hair and your styling needs can make a difference in your hair’s health and appearance. The appropriate brush for someone with long, curly hair will be drastically different than the best brush for fine or thinning hair. Some brushes, like the round or vented kind, are best for styling, while others work to detangle, and some may even remedy static and frizz. Here we’ll cover different types of brushes and what they can do for your hair. Types of hairbrushes and combs There are so many different kinds of hairbrushes and combs available, it can be overwhelming to know which one is right for you. Depending on the type of hair you have, you may want to use a specialized brush. Wet hairbrush The original Wet and Dry Hair Brush is an affordable option. Its fine, soft bristles are strong enough to work through the toughest knots, and soft enough not to cause damage to wet hair. The American Academy of Dermatology Association warns against brushing wet hair because it’s more prone to breakage. However, if you have very textured or curly hair, brushing when wet is a good idea. They typically have heat-resistant bristles that won’t melt or break when blow-drying hair. Paddle brush The wide base of Paddle Hair Brush enables them to cover a lot of ground quickly while smoothing hair. They’re a great choice for people with long, straight hair. Vented brush A Vented Hair Brush is the best choice for quick blow drying soaking-wet hair. The vents allow hot air to flow through, reaching all layers of hair. Round brush Round Hair Brush is a good choice for blow-drying hair and styling loose waves. They’re fully circular, which makes it easier to blow the hair under, resulting in curls or waves (depending on the size of the brush).
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Employees in workshops and industrial companies have to use a vast array of tools and small parts as part of their day-to-day work. Tool Cabinets and shelving units can provide invaluable help by enabling you to organise workflows more effectively. They allow the various items to be clearly sorted so that they are quick to find when needed. As a result, your employees do not have to waste time looking for the tool they need. The tools and devices are also securely stored away, and are unaffected by dirt or contamination. The following criteria should be considered when selecting a tool cabinet: Door selection Traditional Combination Tool Cabinets are equipped with drawers. Different heights are available for the drawer fronts, enabling you to choose the perfect configuration for your needs. Standard tool storage cabinets and machine auxiliary cabinets are usually equipped with swing doors. However, you can also opt for sliding doors or roller shutters, particularly if space is at a premium. Doors with viewing windows make life easier for employees by letting them see what is inside the cabinet. Fully equipped or self-configured tool cabinets Many manufacturers let you choose between two types of drawer cabinets. Fully equipped Workshop Tool Trolley comes pre-assembled with specific drawers and storage shelves. The other option is self-configured steel cabinets, where you choose an appropriately sized casing and the drawers and storage shelves you need. Please note the distinction between the casing height and the usable height here (casing height – 100 mm = usable height). Drawer cabinet, universal cabinet or special cabinet The purpose for which you need the cabinet is also crucial to making sure you make the right choice. When it comes to storing tools, drawer cabinets are mainly used. If you need to store lots of different items, a universal cabinet with swing or sliding doors and storage shelves is the best solution. These cabinets are also available with open storage bins, which are ideal for storing large numbers of small parts. When it comes to machining, special CNC cabinets are available that can securely and clearly store your expensive CNC tools. If you need to protect your tools against damage from electrostatic discharge, then conductive ESD tool cabinets are the ideal choice. If there's one constant in woodworking benches of today and of yore, it's their very diversity, but simply put, a good bench is one that perfectly suits its user's needs. In ancient times, the woodworker’s bench consisted of a plank or split log with four splayed legs. Descendants of those benches are manufactured today, usually with a top of hardwood slabs glued together. The norm nowadays is four straight legs supporting the bulk above, often with braces and a shelf below. Despite the improvements, the linkage to Greek and Roman antecedents is still evident. Workshop Workbenches have flat tops, though sometimes at the rear there is a cavity called a tool well that contains tools and components (and prevents them from falling off). One advantage of having the well set into the top of the bench is that, even with a variety of objects in the well, a large sheet of material can still be laid flat over the entire surface of the bench; the contents of the tool well offer no interference.
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Since 2005, significant leaps forward in motors and tool electronics, coupled with advancements in lithium-ion, have pushed the industry to a point few would have considered possible 10 years ago. Today’s Cordless Tools deliver massive amounts of power and performance in a more compact package, and can even outperform their corded predecessors. The run times are getting longer, and the charge times are getting shorter. Even so, there are still tradesmen who have resisted the shift from corded to cordless. For these users, there’s just far too much work to be done to let productivity be hindered by potential battery run-time, and overall power and performance concerns. While these may have been valid concerns even five years ago, the industry is now at a point where Cordless Car Washer is quickly taking over as the leading technology in numerous ways. Here are three trends to consider when it comes to the adoption of cordless solutions on the job site. Reduction in Work-Related Injuries Due to Cords The Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) has long reported that slips, trips and falls are a prevalent concern on job sites, accounting for more than one-third of all reported injuries. Trips occur when an obstruction catches a worker’s foot and causes him/her to stumble. One of the most common offenders of trips is cords from power tools. Cordless tools have the benefit of freeing job sites from the nuisances of having to sweep cords to the side or string extension cables across the floor, vastly improving the hazards associated with trips, but also freeing up more space for equipment. You Won’t Need to Charge as Much as You Think Run-time isn’t much of a concern anymore when it comes to Cordless Drill, rendering the age-old fight for the security of the cord a thing of the past. The move to more energy-dense battery packs means that professional users who use the tools extensively now rely on fewer battery packs to get through a work day. Pro users had six or eight batteries on-site for their Ni-Cd tools and traded them out as needed throughout the day. With the newer lithium-ion batteries now available, heavy-duty users need just one or two for the day, then recharge overnight. Technology is More Capable Than Ever Before Lithium-ion technology isn’t solely responsible for the enhanced features today’s users are seeing in their tools. A tool’s motor and electronics infrastructure are also key factors that can offer increased run-time and performance. Just because a voltage number may be higher, doesn’t mean it has more power. Because of many technological advances, Cordless Wrench power tool manufacturers have been able to meet and surpass higher voltage performance with that of their cordless solutions. By tying brushless motors to the world’s most capable electronics packages and most advanced lithium-ion batteries, users can truly push the boundaries of cordless tool performance and experience the enhanced productivity it provides.
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Why some websites show web access blocked and say According to the network control policy, you have no privilege to visit this web page.
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