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Recent questions and answers in Politics

Why Do People Say Politics Is A Dirty Game?
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Who won the second round France election in 2022?
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What is the root cause of the war between Russia and Ukraine?
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Quality of Surgical Instruments Many surgeons will have encountered the scissors that would not cut, and the artery clip that comes off in a deep difficult location, but it would be reasonable to assume that new instruments should be of assured quality. This study reports the surprising findings of a local quality control exercise for new instruments supplied to a single trust. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between January 2004 and June 2004, all batches of new 5MM surgical instruments ordered by the Central Sterile Supplies Department of St Bartholomew's and the Royal London Hospitals were assessed by three clinical engineers, with reference to British Standards (BS) requirements. RESULTS Of 4800 instruments examined, 15% had potential problems. These included 116 with machining burrs and debris in the teeth of the tissue-holding regions, 71 defects of ratcheted instruments, 34 scissors with deficient cutting action, and 35 tissue forceps protruding guide pins. In addition, 254 instruments did not have a visible manufacturer's mark. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates the value of local quality control for 10MM surgical instruments. This is of importance in an increasingly hazard-conscious environment, where there are concerns over instrument sterilisation, surgical glove puncture and the potential for transmission of blood-borne and prion diseases. A surgeon performing a surgical procedure should be able to assume that the instruments used are safe and reliable – particularly if they are new. To ensure the quality of these instruments, the Health Care Standards Policy Committee directed the British Standards Institution to produce requirements for the materials, design, dimensions and other features of surgical instruments. As a result, British Standards (BS), incorporating International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO) standards, were published.1 Each year, large numbers of new instruments are ordered by healthcare facilities across the UK, and those ordering them should be able to rely on these standards. This study reports the results of local quality control by the clinical engineering department of all new instruments supplied to a single NHS trust. Over a 6-month period between January 2004 and June 2004, all new batches of disposable surgical instruments delivered to the Barts and the London NHS Trust, from a variety of manufacturers, were assessed by three clinical engineers. The suppliers and manufacturers were informed beforehand. Where large numbers of identical instruments were delivered in a single batch, samples of these were examined as follows: 25–49 instruments 50%, 50–74 instruments 30%, 75–99 instruments 20%, and 100+ instruments 15%. In total, 4800 instruments were inspected, where necessary under magnification, for flaws as defined under BS quality assurance requirements.
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Ultraviolet Light Fights New Virus In the fight against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an old weapon has re-emerged [1]. More than a century after Niels Finsen won the 1903 Nobel Prize for discovering that ultraviolet (UV) light could kill germs [2], UV light is surging in popularity as a method for disinfecting hospital rooms and other public spaces. Xenex is one of at least 30 companies making UV disinfection equipment. And not just for hospitals. Another company, Dimer UVC Innovations of Los Angeles, CA, USA, markets a cart with UV lamps, called GermFalcon (Fig. 2 ), that it claims can disinfect a whole airplane in 3 min [4]. UV lamp is also being used to disinfect and re-use hospital face masks [5]. UV light is generally divided into three classes, based on the wavelength of the light. All of them are invisible to the human eye. The longest wavelengths are UVA (315–400 nm) and UVB (280–315 nm), which are found in ordinary sunlight. These are the rays that can cause sunburn if one stays outside too long without protection. UVA and UVB light rays have limited germ-killing ability because viruses and bacteria have had millions of years to adapt to them. But UVC light (200–280 nm) is completely absorbed by our atmosphere and never reaches the surface of the earth [6]. Therefore, UVC light is just as novel to SARS-CoV-2 as the virus is to humans. According to the International Ultraviolet Association, it is generally accepted that a dose of 40 mJ·cm−2 of 254 nm light will kill at least 99.99% of “any pathogenic microorganism” [6], [7]. At present there are many different designs for 4 pin UV lamp. Some systems consist of just a bare lightbulb and a timer, while others are mobile robots that can reach hard-to-access places [8]. Two of the major design choices are the wavelength of light and the method of delivery. By far the most common wavelength for germicidal light is 254 nm, produced by low-pressure mercury lamps. These lamps are easy and cheap to manufacture because they use essentially the same technology as a fluorescent light bulb. A fluorescent bulb actually produces UV light inside the bulb. But the phosphor deposited on the glass surface of the bulb absorbs that light and re-emits it at longer wavelengths that humans can see. To make a UV lamp, the glass is replaced with a material transparent to UV light, such as fused quartz. However, 254 nm may not be the optimal wavelength for killing all viruses. Experts believe that different wavelengths disable viruses in different ways [9], [10]. The 254 nm light damages the viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) so that the virus cannot reproduce. Shorter wavelengths, like 207–222 nm (sometimes called “far UVC”) are believed to damage the proteins on the surface of the virus that it needs to attach to human cells. Thus, the curve that describes the viral killing ability of UVC light has a double-humped shape, with a peak at shorter wavelengths and another around 265 nm. The Xenex system is designed to take advantage of both virus-killing methods, by producing light from a pulsed xenon source that spans the whole spectrum from 200 to 315 nm. Because xenon is an inert gas, xenon-stimulated bulbs can be disposed of more easily than ones containing toxic mercury. According to the company, more than 500 healthcare facilities around the world are currently using Xenex robots for whole-room disinfection.
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Choosing the Ideal Shower Door For Your Bathroom Showers have taken a central role in today’s bathroom design, with some people even choosing to leave the tub out of their bathroom renovation in favor of a larger shower. There is no one-size-fits-all shower, and likewise bathroom shower door come in a variety of styles and sizes to suit any design and budget. Glass shower doors and enclosures are popular choices, as they give an open, clean feeling to the bathroom, allow light to flow through the room, and help the space seem larger. Shower enclosures can be customized to suit any space, so use your imagination and work with your kitchen and bath design professional to find the right shower door to meet your needs. You can find plenty of inspiration in our bathroom design gallery, but here is an overview of some options: The framed enclosure tends to be viewed as a somewhat outdated choice, which is more difficult to clean and maintain due to the frame collecting dirt and grime. For some people, the old framed shower enclosure may be one of the reasons why they are seeking to change their bathroom! While it may not top the list of popular fixtures, updated versions of this double sliding shower door style can still suit your new bathroom as a lower cost option. A frameless enclosure with a hinged door is a more popular choice as it brings a clean, modern edge to any style design. Clear glass also allows you to show off tilework and other decorative features and leaves less space for dirt to get trapped. Choose a glass finish designed to repel soap scum and water spots to make sure your shower glass stays clean. The frameless enclosure could be either a full glass enclosure like the one pictured below left or a combination of tile walls framing a glass door like the one below right. Sliding glass doors are available in either double or single doors to accommodate any size shower. Sliding doors make a sleek option for your bathroom, and also take up less space than that required for a hinged door. The elegant and practical designs shown below use single sliding shower door for a larger shower enclosure. Textured or frosted glass allows more privacy for your shower experience and gives the bathroom design a unique look. Frosted glass like the bathroom remodel in Doylestown, PA pictured below does a better job of concealing the shower user, but the textured option provides greater style variations and allows more light to shine through the shower. A hinged door for a bath/shower enclosure provides a stylish alternative to the traditional shower curtain for your tub/shower combination. Even in a small bathroom, a hinged glass door can be a sleek option to keep moisture in the tub while still opening up the space and allowing light to shine through. Go all or nothing with either no door or a fully enclosed shower. Where you have allotted space and budget for the ultimate shower experience, consider installing an open shower design with no door. This type of large, walk-in shower is usually partially enclosed with tile wall and glass but leaves the doorway open. It evokes the relaxing feel of a spa, particularly when combined with a rainfall showerhead or a massaging shower panel. On the other end of the spectrum you might consider a customized shower with a fully enclosed door to create your own home steam room, like the one pictured below.
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Single-cell alternatives Quality feed proteins will require alternative ingredients: such ingredients must be palatable, commercially available, and consistent. Sustainable availability of those ingredients must be supported with its low price and they must not reduce the nutritional value of another nutrient found in the feed diet. Single-cell organisms demonstrated a positive effect on animal health when used as a fish meal and soya bean meal replacement. Good substitutes may come from microalgae, bacterial meal, and yeasts. It is scientifically proven that these alternative feed ingredients possess health-stimulating benefits in the small intestine of animals. Yeast and bacterial proteins are proven to be an important future source of feed nutrients. Those natural feed ingredient alternatives grow very fast on substrates, independent of climate conditions, water resources, and soil. Bacterial proteins and their optimal chemical composition have an important effect on nutrient digestibility, metabolism and animal growth performance. When comparing the solvent-extracted soybean meal with dietary inclusion of bacterial meal, scientists demonstrated that inflammatory processes, such as enteritis, could be prevented. Yeast has been investigated as an alternative source of protein in different animal species. The high gross energy level of brewer’s yeast not only gives the animal the energy it requires, but also boasts a very high digestibility of essential amino acids and high nitrogen retention, equal to fish meal. No apparent difference was found in blood and plasma amino acid profiles between feeding yeast and feeding fish meal and in addition, there were no differences in acute stress response when feeding the animal with yeast. Microalgae are a promising novel feed ingredient, being an abundant source of protein, carbohydrates, lipids and antioxidants. Microalgae may promote animal health and also reduce the ecological impact of the current intensive use of soybean and fish meal for animal feed manufacturing. Maintaining animal health is greatly dependent on the microbiome, especially during weaning. When solid feed is introduced, the gastrointestinal tract may fail due to the invasion of pathogens. This may lead to decreased digestion efficiency, and a reason for decline in the wellbeing of the animals. Intake of prebiotics modulates the intestinal microbiota and changes composition of the microbiota. Prebiotics are indigestible, but they are available as an energy source to the bacteria inhabiting the lower gastrointestinal tract of the animals. Keeping healthy gut bacteria can optimise utilisation of nutrients from the sustainable ingredients. Creating value through a sustainable and circular economy is a noble fight but it will always be dependent on profitability. The health of livestock animals, however, must be a priority. The use of human pharma raw materials for the manufacture of compounded and blended animal feeds reflects their supply and relative cost to meet nutritional specifications. Trends in the use of raw materials in the production of animal feeds in Great Britain between 1976 and 2011 were studied using national statistics obtained through monthly surveys of animal feed mills and integrated poultry units to test the hypothesis that animal feed industries are capable potentially of adapting to future needs such as reducing their carbon footprints (CFP) or the use of potentially human edible raw materials. Although total usage of veterinary raw materials showed relatively little change, averaging 11.3 million tonnes (Mt) per annum over the 35-year period, there were substantial changes in the use of individual raw materials.
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The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health Nature has always been, and still is, a source of foods and ingredients that are beneficial to human health. Nowadays, plant extracts are increasingly becoming important additives in the food industry due to their content in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols [1] and carotenoids [2], which have antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, especially against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oxidative changes [3]. The aforementioned compounds also delay the development of off-flavors and improve the shelf life and color stability of food products. Due to their natural origin, they are excellent candidates to replace synthetic compounds, which are generally considered to have toxicological and carcinogenic effects. The efficient extraction of these compounds from their natural sources and the determination of their activity in commercialized products have been great challenges for researchers and food chain contributors to develop products with positive effects on human health. The objective of this Special Issue is to highlight the existing evidence regarding the various potential benefits of the consumption of plant extracts and plant extract-based products, along with essential oils that are derived from plants also and emphasize in vivo works and epidemiological studies, application of plant extracts to improve shelf-life, the nutritional and health-related properties of foods, and the extraction techniques that can be used to obtain bioactive compounds from plant extracts. In this context, Concha-Meyer et al. [4] studied the bioactive compounds of tomato pomace obtained by ultrasound assisted extraction. In this review, it was presented that the functional extract obtained by ultrasounds had antithrombotic properties, such as platelet anti-aggregant activity compared with commercial cardioprotective products. Turrini et al. [5] introduced bud-derivatives from eight different plant species as a new category of botanicals containing polyphenols and studied how different extraction processes can affect their composition. Woody vine plants from Kadsura spp. belonging to the Schisandraceae family produce edible red fruits that are rich in nutrients and antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids. Extracts from these plants had antioxidant properties and had shown also key enzyme inhibitions [6]. Hence, fruit parts other than the edible mesocarp could be utilized for future food additives applications using Kadsura spp. rather than these being wasted. Saji et al. [7] studied the possible use of rice bran, a by-product generated during the rice milling process, normally used in animal feed or discarded due to its rancidity, for its phenolic content. It was proved that rice bran phenolic extracts via their metal chelating properties and free radical scavenging activity, target pathways of oxidative stress and inflammation resulting in the alleviation of vascular inflammatory mediators. Villedieu-Percheron et al. [8] evaluated three natural diterpenes compounds extracted and isolated from Andrographis paniculata medicinal herb as possible inhibitors of NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) transcriptional activity of pure analogues. Yeon et al. [9] evaluated the antioxidant activity, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition effect, and the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of hot pepper water extracts both before and after their fermentation. These water extracts were proved to have potentially inhibitory effects against both hyperglycemia and hypertension. The hydrolyzed extracts of Ziziphus jujube fruit, commonly called jujube, were examined for their protective effect against lung inflammation in mice [10]. They contained significant amounts of flavonoids which inhibited cytokine release from macrophages and promoted antioxidant defenses in vivo. Tran at al. [11] examined the antidiabetic activity of spray-dried Euphorbia hirta L. herb extracts containing high concentrations of bioactive compounds such as phenolics and flavonoids. Li et al. [12] reported that intestinal microbiota is closely associated with the initiation and progression of diabetes mellitus and reviewed bioactive components which exhibited anti-diabetic activity by modulating these intestinal microbiotas. Essential oils have promising activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria and chemotherapeutic-resistant tumors. This was supported by the study of Viktorová et al. [13] where lemongrass essential oil and especially citral, the dominant component, proved to have potential antimicrobial and anticancer activity. Additionally, Mitropoulou et al. [14] investigated the antimicrobial potential of Sideritis raeseri subps. raeseri essential oil against common food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and evaluated its antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. Salehi et al. [15] reviewed the Berberis plants, which contain alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds and essential oils, and their possible use in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Last but not least, Kiokias et al. [16] reviewed the naturally occurring phenolic acids from plants and their antioxidant activities in o/w emulsions and in vitro lipid-based model systems.
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Aluminum CNC Machine: Benefits and Possible Alternatives For CNC machining projects, aluminum is one of the most popular material choices due to its desirable physical properties. It is strong, which makes it ideal for mechanical parts, and its oxidized outer layer is resistant to corrosion from the elements. These benefits have made aluminum parts common across all industries, though they are particularly favored in the automotive, aerospace, healthcare and consumer electronics spheres. Aluminum also offers specific advantages that simplify and improve the process of CNC machining. Unlike many other metals with similar material properties, aluminum offers excellent machinability: many of its grades can be effectively penetrated by cutting tools, chipping easily while being relatively easy to shape. Because of this, aluminum can be machined more than three times faster than iron or steel. This article explains some of the key advantages of aluminum CNC turning — reasons why it is one of our most widely requested prototyping and production processes — but also suggests machining alternatives to aluminum. Other metals and plastics can provide similar benefits to aluminum, in addition to the unique benefits of their own. Machinability One of the main reasons why engineers choose aluminum for their machined parts is because, quite simply, the material is easy to machine. While this would appear to be more of a benefit for the machinist manufacturing the part, it also has significant benefits for the business ordering the part, as well as the end-user that will eventually use it. Because aluminum chips easily, and because it is easy to shape, it can be cut quickly and accurately with aluminum CNC milling. This has some important consequences: firstly, the short timeframe of the machining job makes the process cheaper (because less labor is required from the machinist and less operating time is required from the machine itself); secondly, good machinability means less deformation of the part as the cutting tool goes through the workpiece. This can allow the machine to meet tighter tolerances (as low as ±0.025 mm) and leads to higher accuracy and repeatability. Corrosion resistance Different aluminum grades differ greatly in their resistance to corrosion — the degree to which they can withstand oxidization and chemical damage. Fortunately, some of the most popular grades for brass CNC turning are the most resistant. 6061, for example, offers excellent corrosion resistance, as do other alloys on the lower end of the strength spectrum. (Strong aluminum alloys may be less resistant to corrosion due to the presence of alloyed copper.) Strength-to-weight ratio Aluminum has desirable physical properties that make it ideal for both mechanical and aspect parts. Two of the most important are the metal’s high strength and its lightweight, both of which make the material favorable for critical parts such as those required in the aerospace and automotive industries. Aircraft fittings and automotive shafts are two examples of parts that can be successfully machined with aluminum.
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How Does Bitcoin Mining Work? Bitcoin mining is the process by which new bitcoins are entered into circulation; it is also the way that new transactions are confirmed by the network and a critical component of the maintenance and development of the blockchain ledger. "Mining" is performed using sophisticated hardware that solves an extremely complex computational math problem. The first computer to find the solution to the problem is awarded the next block of bitcoins and the process begins again. However, before you invest the time and equipment, read this explainer to see whether asic miner is really for you. We will focus primarily on Bitcoin (throughout, we'll use "Bitcoin" when referring to the network or the cryptocurrency as a concept, and "bitcoin" when we're referring to a quantity of individual tokens). The primary draw for many mining is the prospect of being rewarded with Bitcoin. That said, you certainly don't have to be a miner to own cryptocurrency tokens. You can also buy cryptocurrencies using fiat currency; you can trade it on an exchange like Bitstamp using another crypto (as an example, using Ethereum or NEO to buy Bitcoin); you even can earn it by shopping, publishing blog posts on platforms that pay users in cryptocurrency, or even set up interest-earning crypto accounts. The Bitcoin reward that miners receive is an incentive that motivates people to assist in the primary purpose of antminer: to legitimize and monitor Bitcoin transactions, ensuring their validity. Because these responsibilities are spread among many users all over the world, Bitcoin is a "decentralized" cryptocurrency, or one that does not rely on any central authority like a central bank or government to oversee its regulation. Mining to Prevent Double Spend Miners are getting paid for their work as auditors. They are doing the work of verifying the legitimacy of Bitcoin transactions. This convention is meant to keep Bitcoin users honest and was conceived by Bitcoin's founder, Satoshi Nakamoto.1 By verifying transactions, miners are helping to prevent the "double-spending problem." Double spending is a scenario in which a Bitcoin owner illicitly spends the same bitcoin twice. With physical currency, this isn't an issue: once you hand someone a $20 bill to buy a bottle of vodka, you no longer have it, so there's no danger you could use that same $20 bill to buy lotto tickets next door. While there is the possibility of counterfeit cash being made, it is not exactly the same as literally spending the same dollar twice. With digital currency, however, as the Investopedia dictionary explains, "there is a risk that the holder could make a copy of the digital token and send it to a merchant or another party while retaining the original." Let's say you had one legitimate $20 bill and one counterfeit of that same $20. If you were to try to spend both the real bill and the fake one, someone that took the trouble of looking at both of the bills' serial numbers would see that they were the same number, and thus one of them had to be false. What a Bitcoin miner does is analogous to that—they check transactions to make sure that users have not illegitimately tried to spend the same bitcoin twice. This isn't a perfect analogy—we'll explain in more detail below.
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Flow meters are classed as volumetric or inferential, the latter term referring to meters that determine velocity from other variables such as pressure differences across a device such as an orifice plate. There is a large variety of flow measurement device, using numerous physical principles. Full discussion of the whole range of flow measurement device is out of the scope of this book but the reader will find a comprehensive reference in the Flow Measurement Handbook (Baker, 2000). Table 18.4 gives typical information on some of the flow meters usually encountered in the water industry. Mass magnetic flowmeter such as the Coriolis meter provide a more sophisticated metering device. Sometimes configured in a distinctive U-tube shape, an internal tube is set oscillating using an electric current supplied to coils at either end of the tube. The flow of liquid through the tube sets up a twisting force on the inner tube due to the naturally occurring Coriolis Effect. Sensors fitted along the length of the tube detect and measure the twisting force, which is a function of the mass flow rate; the processed data provides production and fluid density data. The principles of orifice and venturi meters are discussed in Section 14.16. Two other kinds of inferential (or momentum) meter are the Dall tube and the V cone venturi. In both, flow accelerates through a constriction and leads to a pressure drop. The pressure difference is measured in the Dall tube and the V cone venturi as an indicator of velocity (and so flow) in the same way as for an orifice. The V cone venturi design is claimed to have a turn-down ratio of 25:1 and to be less affected by conditions upstream and downstream and can be fitted into shorter lengths of straight pipe than is recommended for other meter types. Further types of momentum meter are indicated in Table 18.5. An ultrasonic flow meter as shown in Fig. 16.11 measures the velocity of a fluid to calculate volume flow. The vortex flowmeter can measure the average velocity along the path of an emitted beam of ultrasound by averaging the difference in measured transit time between the pulses of ultrasound propagating into and against the direction of the flow or by measuring the frequency shift from the Doppler effect. Ultrasonic flow meters are affected by the acoustic properties of the fluid and can be impacted by temperature, density, viscosity and suspended particulates. They are often inexpensive to use and maintain because they do not use moving parts, unlike mechanical flow meters. Insertion probe flow meters are installed for temporary measurement of flow for consumption surveys or for distribution networks analyses. These instruments are either the turbine or electromagnetic (EM) type, the latter becoming more common. Both are inserted into the pipe where flow measurement is required. The turbine type uses a small rotating vane at the end of a probe to record flow velocity. The vane is susceptible to damage, in which case the instrument has to be returned to the manufacturer for repair and recalibration. The turbine meter is inserted through a 40 mm diameter tapping in the pipe which has to be of at least 200 mm diameter. The EM probe (Plate 30(c)) uses an electromagnet at its end to apply a magnetic field to the water. Electrodes either side of the probe pick up the induced EMF in the water which is proportional to the velocity past the electrodes. The tapping for an EM insertion probe is 20 mm diameter and can usually be installed in pipes of diameter 150 mm and greater. EM probes are made up to 1 m long; therefore, they cannot be used for pipes of diameter greater than 900 mm and are restricted to flow with velocity less than about 1.75 to 2.0 m/s due to the flexibility of the probe.
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Latex Medical Gloves: Time for a Reappraisal Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves and a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of NRL allergies after interventions and education prompted us to revisit the basis for justifiable glove selection policies. The published Anglophone literature from 1990 to 2010 was reviewed for original articles and reviews dealing with the barrier and performance properties of NRL and synthetic gloves and the role of glove powder. The review shows that NRL medical gloves, when compared with synthetic gloves, tend to be stronger, more flexible and better accepted by clinicians. The introduction of powder-free gloves has been associated with reductions in protein content and associated allergies. Recently, new methods to quantify clinically relevant NRL allergens have enabled the identification of gloves with low allergenic potential. The use of low-protein, low-allergenic, powder-free gloves is associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of type I allergic reactions to NRL among healthcare workers. Given the excellent barrier properties and operating characteristics, dramatically reduced incidences of allergic reactions, availability of specific tests for selection of low-allergen gloves, competitive costs and low environmental impact, the use of NRL gloves within the hospital environment warrants reappraisal. In recent years, many hospitals and health care settings around the world have decided to restrict the use or totally ban all natural rubber latex (NRL) devices as precautionary measures to NRL allergy threats. As is widely acknowledged, type I or IgE-mediated NRL allergy has, for several years, been one of the most significant occupational health problems [for reviews, see [1,2,3]]. However, it is now also acknowledged that new cases of NRL allergy have reduced significantly and sometimes virtually disappeared in countries and hospital regions where health authorities have required the use of low-allergen/low-protein, non-powdered protective medical gloves. Thus, policies which ban the use of NRL devices may be an overreaction that can lead to unexpected compromises in the primary purpose of using protective gloves, that is, providing a competent barrier to protect against infections for both healthcare professionals and the patients [4,5]. These controversies prompted us to revisit the basis for justifiable glove selection policies. As is well known, NRL has been used as a material for the production of gloves for almost a century. Throughout the 1990s there were increasing concerns about transmittable diseases, particularly HIV infection and hepatitis, which resulted in a dramatic increase in the use of NRL gloves. Escalating glove use in the 1990s was associated with the rise in reports of allergic reactions to NRL gloves among healthcare workers [1,6,7,8,9,10]. The increased demand for gloves led to an upsurge in glove production, especially in Malaysia. Between 1987 and 1989 the Malaysian Rubber Development Board received over 400 applications to form glove companies where previously only 25 existed [11]. Early on in the history of NRL allergy, some authors [12,13] suggested that the increased production in response to the sudden upsurge for latex gloves often led to inadequate leaching to reduce protein levels. The healthcare community requires medical gloves, both for examination and surgery, in order to provide a barrier that prevents transmission of micro-organisms to and from patients [4]. Many factors are involved in the choice of materials for the production of medical gloves, which relate to both the protective effect as well as ease and comfort of use [14,15]. For a large number of healthcare practitioners, NRL continues to be the glove material of choice [15,16].
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Does a dehumidifier cool a room? A new humid air humidifier was designed and built. It is composed with two identical stages. The condensation is achieved on vertical tubes. Many configurations are tested. A thermodynamic model has been established. This model predicted the performances of each stage. The results showed that the flow rate of pure water produced by dehumidification and the exchanged heat power increase with increasing mass flow rates of dry air and cooling water, temperature and absolute humidity of inlet moist air in the dehumidifier. The high quantity of water vapor in air makes a thick film of condensate on cooling tubes. This reduces the flow rate of condensate and thermal power exchanged. So, the use of multistage condenser as dehumidifier is must but not sufficient for optimum efficiency. Dehumidifiers remove excess moisture from a room, but does a dehumidifier cool a room? We explore the answer here. Dehumidifiers are an increasingly popular choice, but does a dehumidifier cool a room? Not only can reducing humidity make your room more pleasant, but it can also help protect the people in your home from a host of health issues, including respiratory problems and allergies. Dehumidifiers can also stop the growth of mold, which can be damaging and dangerous to health. Understanding how dehumidifiers work and what they do can help us answer the question; does a industrial dehumidifier cool a room? While dehumidifiers aren’t designed to reduce a room’s temperature, removing humidity can make it feel cooler and more comfortable. They can even have some surprising benefits, with dehumidifiers helping with snoring and other issues. Dehumidifiers remove excess moisture in the air by drawing it in from the outside and cooling it. A refrigerant (or compressor) dehumidifier draws in air. This then passes through a cold coil that causes the moisture within the air to condense, becoming water that subsequently drops to a reservoir at the bottom of the machine. Alternatively, a desiccant dehumidifier uses an absorbent material, such as silica gel or Zeolite, typically formed into a rotor. Air is pushed through the rotor, where the desiccant material removes moisture from the air. While they remove humidity, neither type of dehumidifier won’t noticeably affect the temperature of a room. However, removing humidity may make the room feel cooler. Dehumidifiers aren’t the same as air conditioning units, which are designed to generate cold air that’s pumped into a room in order to lower the temperature. In contrast, dehumidifiers remove the moisture from the existing air within a space. However, while not specifically designed to cool a room, air purifier dehumidifier still do an essential job within the home. A 2018 study from the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health found that humid air is associated with a whole range of health issues. No matter what causes dampness in a house, excessively high humidity can lead to the growth of damp and mold, which can be dangerous to health, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Meanwhile, if the humidity level in a room is too low, researchers from Environmental Health Perspectives have established that it can cause a range of health problems, including skin irritation. Meanwhile, scientists from Biological Rhythm Research have also confirmed what most of us already know, that high humidity can also have a "deleterious effect on sleep". High humidity can make a room feel uncomfortable, according to this research from Temperature Medical Physiology and Beyond, as the sweat produced by our bodies to regulate heat doesn’t evaporate as quickly. By removing this humidity, the room can feel cooler and more comfortable. As a result, it's easier to breathe and sleep.
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Nitrile and latex are two of the most common types of general-use disposable gloves. Choose the best material for protecting your hands. Single-use Gloves are not an essential accessory on most days, but they can be an effective illness-preventing measure. When you should wear gloves depends on what you’re doing, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The type of disposable gloves you wear is up to you. Gloves used as personal protective equipment (PPE) are made of many different materials; some are used in chemical laboratories, while others are best for medical workers. Nitrile and latex are two of the most common materials for general-use disposable gloves. Before deciding between nitrile vs. latex, there are a few questions to answer: What are nitrile gloves, and how do they compare to latex? What Are Nitrile and Latex Gloves Used For? PPE, such as a face mask, is most often used by people who work with the public, including lifeguards, first responders and healthcare providers. When it comes to nitrile vs. latex, both serve the same basic purpose. Latex and Nitrile Gloves are lightweight, stretchy hand coverings that protect the wearer from direct contact with whatever they may touch, which defends first aid and healthcare providers from bloodborne pathogens. They can also prevent foodborne illnesses and skin irritation caused by household cleaners, as well as the spread of infectious diseases. The CDC recommends wearing PPE when caring for someone who is sick and when sanitizing and disinfecting your home. Frequently-touched surfaces like doorknobs, light switches and countertops harbor tons of germs, and the cleaning products that actually disinfect can be harsh on your skin. While disposable gloves help keep you safe by blocking direct skin contact, they are not the most effective way to prevent getting sick. The most important protective measure is frequent and thorough hand washing. Always wash your hands with soap and water after removing gloves. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) does not recommend reusing or washing disposable gloves or other disposable PPE — effectiveness wanes with repeated use. Why Would Someone Choose Nitrile vs. Latex? Although nitrile and latex gloves are incredibly common forms of PPE, there are a few reasons why you might pick one over the other. The first is whether you or anyone in your household has a latex allergy. The use of Latex Gloves can cause a rash, hives, swelling and more when used by someone with a latex sensitivity. Gloves made from “synthetic materials, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nitrile, or polyurethane,” are safer for people with latex allergies, according to the FDA. Latex gloves are popular due to their elasticity and comfort, says the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guide to personal protective equipment. Nitrile gloves, on the other hand, are more durable and resistant to punctures and chemicals. Overall, nitrile gloves may be the more versatile option. Whichever you choose, always stock protective gloves in your garage, shop or cleaning cupboard to keep your hands safe and sanitary. Latex: Widely considered to be the most comfortable glove type available, offering a ‘second skin’ feeling, Rubber Gloves offer protection against water-based chemicals, biological hazards, and skin irritants. However, they generally aren’t as robust as nitrile gloves and can result in allergic reactions to latex.
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Used widely across fashion and interiors, velvet has long been a go-to fabric for creating a high-style look. But it can come off as a little intimidating—you might feel it reads too extravagant or that caring for it is too troublesome. We’re here to dispel those rumors and to let you know that velvet is in fact a practical option for any home. Read on to see what makes it one of our favorite fabrics. It Is Surprisingly Versatile The Holland Velvet fabric feels and looks more luxurious than most textiles, but that doesn’t mean it’s any less adaptable in the home. Because it’s available in such a wide array of forms—from large pieces such as upholstered beds to smaller options like throw pillows—you can go all-out or keep it simple. It also transcends trends and styles beautifully: Its luminous sheen makes it especially fitting for a glamorous room, but it can feel equally at home in relaxed or modern spaces. It Has Historical and Royal Roots There are several schools of thought as to where and when velvet originated, but it’s generally agreed that it was somewhere in the Far East—likely China—around the 13th century, if not earlier. Velvet then made its way west along the Silk Road, becoming immensely popular during the Italian Renaissance. (In fact, the word “velvet” comes from the Italian word velluto, meaning “shaggy.”) Before the advent of modern industrial looms, Germany Velvet was quite costly to produce—and therefore available only to wealthy and royal families. Nobles in particular were drawn to its ability to accept richly hued dyes. Queen Elizabeth II still wears dyed velvet robes and regalia in formal ceremonies! How It Is Made Because it is not a flat-woven fabric like linen, Sofa Velvet requires more yarn and takes multiple steps to produce. Yarn is first woven together on a loom between two layers of backing. The fabric is then split down the middle, creating two identical pieces, each with the upraised pile that provides its soft, heightened texture. Velvet can be woven from any type of yarn. While in the past it was typically woven from silk, today cotton, linen, wool, and synthetic fibers (often in combination) are commonly used. From leather jackets to high heels, Leathaire Fabric has secured its place as a fixture in the fashion industry, but what makes this quality, durable fabric so popular? Made from animal hides and skins, leather has been used for a variety of items for more than 7,000 years, and it is still a popular textile today. What is Sherpa? Sherpa Fabric resembles the wool-lined clothing worn by the tribe. It is named after the Sherpa people living in Nepal. However, contrary to what the Sherpa people wear; the fabric is typically made of pure cotton; a synthetic fiber like polyester; or a blend of cotton and synthetic fibers. Sherpa is also called faux-sheepskin or faux-shearling. The fabric has two sides. One is the stitched wooly side with a soft and bumpy texture comparable to real fleece; the other side is a smooth knit shell. Together, they make a sherpa material that is both warm and durable. How Sherpa Fabric is made? Sherpa is made from polyester fabric but has some stretch to it. It is not made from wool, although it has that look. Sherpa fleece has two sides一one is a smooth knit, the other is textured to look like fleece from sheep. Knit fabrics are made in one of two basic ways Understanding the ways in which knit fabrics are manufactured will help you see why the topic of knits is so complex. You will see why different knit fabrics behave in such dissimilar ways. Unlike a woven fabric, which is composed of a series of warp (lengthwise) yarns interlaced with a series of weft (crosswise) yarns, a Knitted Fabric is made up of one or more yarns formed into a series of loops that create rows and columns of vertically and horizontally interconnected stitches. A vertical column of stitches is called a wale, and a horizontal row of stitches, a course. Although in a woven fabric, the terms warp and weft refer to the direction of the two sets of yarns making up the fabric, in a knit fabric, these terms describe the direction in which the fabric is produced: A weft knit—which is what hand-knitted fabric is—is one made with a single yarn that’s looped to create horizontal rows, or courses, with each row built on the previous row.
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Definition/Introduction A gas cylinder is a containment apparatus that will store a gaseous compound under pressure for use in medical settings. The physical form of the stored compound can be gas and/or liquid, with the ultimate output from the apparatus being gaseous. Gas Disposable Cylinders allow for portable and safe storage of compounds needed in a medical setting. The sizing of gas cylinders has been attributed to a nationally recognized letter, with the more commonly used medical sizes listed below. Gas cylinders are labeled from A to M, with increasing volume as the letters of the alphabet proceeds. E sized cylinders are the most commonly used size in medical settings. E cylinders have a service pressure of 1900 psi, but may be filled up to 10% more to 2200 psi. Higher filling pressure allows for expansion at temperatures greater than 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Issues of Concern Pressure Release Device The release of pressurized gas can be hazardous, and extreme caution should be exercised. Gas pressure levels should be reduced from stored high pressure to a workable, usable level. A pressure regulator should be used in this situation and any time contents are being removed or used from the cylinder. Do not tamper with pressure release devices. Do not use any Heluim Gas Cylinders with visibly defective pressure release devices. Pressure release devices and gas outlets should never be pointed in any direction that could cause harm. While attached to an anesthesia machine, the cylinder valves should be in the off position while not in use. This is to prevent leakage and so that the provider will be notified via an alarm of failure of the pipeline supply of gas. If the cylinder were to be left open and a pipeline gas supply failure occurred, the anesthesia machine would consume the oxygen in the cylinder, and the provider would not be notified until the cylinder was depleted. Safe Usage A Refrigerant Gas Cylinder should be inspected for malfunctions and defects before use. Full cylinders are usually placed with a tamper-evident seal. This is generally a tear-off seal on the outlet of the valve and is removed before use. Proper inspection of a cylinder includes the outlet, pin index safety system, and especially the pressure relief device. The valve outlet should be clean before use. Only use cylinders marked with DOT (Department of Transportation) or ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission). In Canada, cylinders may be marked with BTC (Board of Transportation Commissioners) or CTC (Canadian Transport Commission). A cylinder should be connected to a regulator to bring the compressed, stored pressure down to a working, usable pressure. Inspect the regulator for signs of damage or foreign materials. Safe Storage and Transportation Adhesive Foam Cylinders must be stored upright and secured using a rack, strap, or chain to minimize the chance of falling over. Cylinders should be transported using a cart or carrier. Never drop or hit cylinders, and never drag, roll or slide cylinders, even for a short distance. Only qualified personnel should refill cylinders. While using cylinders, avoid flammable substances, smoking, open flame, or any other incendiary sources. Cylinders should be stored in a dry, cool, well-ventilated area away from exposure to weather. Cylinders should be stored at temperatures less than 125 degrees Fahrenheit/52 degrees Centigrade. Oxygen cylinders have more specific storage requirements than other medical gases. While oxygen cylinders can be stored in the same space as other non-flammable medical gases as long as they are segregated properly, full oxygen cylinders and empty oxygen cylinders cannot be stored together. The separation of full and empty cylinders prevents the accidental usage of an empty Refillable Refrigerant Cylinder during an emergency situation. Partially full oxygen cylinders may be stored in the same location as full cylinders, provided that they are labeled properly.
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When you sip soda through a straw, you are utilizing the simplest of all suction mechanisms. Sucking the soda up causes a pressure drop between the bottom of the straw and the top of the straw. With greater fluid pressure at the bottom than the top, the soda is pushed up to your mouth. ­ This is the same basic mechanism at work in a Vacuum Cleaner, though the execution is a bit more complicated. In this article, we'll look inside a vacuum cleaner to find out how it puts suction to work when cleaning up the dust and debris in your house. As we'll see, the standard vacuum cleaner design is exceedingly simple, but it relies on a host of physical principles to clean effectively. It may look like a complicated machine, but the conventional vacuum cleaner is actually made up of only six essential components: An intake port, which may include a variety of cleaning accessories An exhaust port An electric motor A fan A porous bag A housing that contains all the other components When you plug the Handheld Vacuums in and turn it on, this is what happens: The electric current operates the motor. The motor is attached to the fan, which has angled blades (like an airplane propeller). As the fan blades turn, they force air forward, toward the exhaust port. When air particles are driven forward, the density of particles (and therefore the air pressure) increases in front of the fan and decreases behind the fan. This pressure drop behind the fan is just like the pressure drop in the straw when you sip from your drink. The pressure level in the area behind the fan drops below the pressure level outside the vacuum cleaner (the ambient air pressure). This creates suction, a partial vacuum, inside the vacuum cleaner. The ambient air pushes itself into the vacuum cleaner through the intake port because the air pressure inside the vacuum cleaner is lower than the pressure outside. As long as the fan is running and the passageway through the vacuum cleaner remains open, there is a constant stream of air moving through the intake port and out the exhaust port. But how does a flowing stream of air collect the dirt and debris from your carpet? The key principle is friction. Vacuum Cleaner Brushes and Bag In the last section, we saw that the suction created by a vacuum cleaner's rotating fan creates a flowing stream of air moving through the intake port and out the exhaust port. This stream of air acts just like a stream of water. The moving air particles rub against any loose dust or debris as they move, and if the debris is light enough and the suction is strong enough, the friction carries the material through the inside of the vacuum cleaner. This is the same principle that causes leaves and other debris to float down a stream. Some vacuum designs also have rotating Vacuum Cleaner Brushes at the intake port, which kick dust and dirt loose from the carpet so it can be picked up by the air stream. As the dirt-filled air makes its way to the exhaust port, it passes through the vacuum-cleaner bag. These bags are made of porous woven material (typically cloth or paper), which acts as an air filter. The tiny holes in the bag are large enough to let air particles pass by, but too small for most dirt particles to fit through. Thus, when the air current streams into the bag, all the air moves on through the material, but the dirt and debris collect in the bag.
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The cold-weather headwear landscape is a notoriously tricky area to traverse. Beanies For Men for men are basically the only vaguely acceptable option, and let’s face it, they’re hardly held in high regard by followers of fashion. You can’t really blame them either. After all, usually when these woollen warmers stray into the public fashion consciousness, there have been terrible, terrible consequences. However, as is the case with so many things in the world of style – it’s not just a matter of what you wear, it’s also about how you wear it. And with that reasoning very much in mind, we’d like to take to the stand in defence of one of winter’s most misunderstood accessories. If you’ve ever uttered the words, “Hats just don’t suit me” it may be because you’ve simply been wearing the wrong ones. Beanies work well with menswear’s current love of utilitarian workwear, and there are a number of styles to match even the weirdest and lumpiest of face shapes. PICKING THE RIGHT BEANIE FOR YOUR FACE “A beanie is a great staple of your winter wardrobe,” says Sarah Gilfillan, stylist and founder of SartoriaLab, a London-based men’s personal styling service. “But before you head out to buy one, remember that small details can make the difference as to whether or not the style suits you.” If you’re round or square of face, avoid designs that will make you look like Harry from Home Alone. “Choose a beanie without a turn-back cuff, with ribbing and a looser style that can add a bit of height to your face,” suggests Gilfillan. “Also, wear it slightly back off your face rather than pulling it down over your ears.” A bobble hat is another good option for this, but steer clear of anything too ‘out there’. You don’t want to look like Kevin, either. If you have a longer face, Recycled Beanies can work nicely. “Opt for a turn back cuff, which could even be in a contrasting colour or have stripe detailing,” says Gilfillan. “Wear a tighter fitting style that sits snugly on your head to avoid adding any more height.” The Balaclava Ski Mask is named after the town of Balaklava on the Crimean Peninsula. It is basically a hat/mask that covers the entire head and face except for the eyes. Sometimes there are holes in the nose and mouth, sometimes not. You don’t have to wear them all the time—you can roll them up and wear them like a hat, or push the tops under your chin and wear them around your neck like a scarf. Put on a pair of ski goggles, they cover almost any situation. This soft, warm Knitted Balaclava Ski Mask is made out of 100 percent merino wool, so it won’t lose insulation power even if it gets damp through sweat, precipitation, or both. It’s thin enough to fit comfortably under a helmet, making it a great choice for skiers, snowboarders, mountain bikers, or climbers, and it also works well with the hood of a jacket, making it a fine choice for anyone who just hates being cold. Wool is also naturally breathable, drawing warmth and moisture away from your skin and helping to regulate body temperature. Just make sure you care for this balaclava properly, washing it on gentle settings and only when necessary, as it won’t hold up as well as a synthetic garment without good care. Unless you are completely oblivious, it probably won’t come as much of a surprise to learn that the baseball Caps were first brought into existence by a baseball team. That team was the Brooklyn Excelsiors and the year was 1860. But it was another half a century before the concept fully took off. After 1900, the baseball cap became an important means by which to identify teams, as well as offering the practical benefit of keeping the sun out of players’ peepers while pitching and hitting their way around the diamond. The explosion of television sports in the 20th century brought the Baseball Caps into people’s homes and onto their heads. Suddenly, the piqued interest in the peaked accessory saw it become a part of the everyday man’s casual uniform. The idea of only ever wearing one on the field was now – pun fully intended – an old hat. “Today it plays to the wider trend of sportswear infusing contemporary wardrobes,” says Nick Paulson-Ellis, founder of online sportswear store The Sports Edit. “Combine this with the influence of hip-hop figures like Jay-Z and his much-beloved New York Yankees cap, celebrities wearing them incognito, and even Gucci adding upscale versions to recent catwalk shows, and it’s plain to see why the baseball cap will always have a place as a staple menswear accessory.” However, this modern essential’s wide range of variations means it’s a famously tricky item to style. So, when it comes to picking one out, stick to these tried and tested favourites to guarantee yourself a home run.
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Garlic Improves Cholesterol Levels, Which May Lower the Risk of Heart Disease Dehydrated Garlic can lower total and LDL cholesterol. For those with high cholesterol, garlic supplements appear to reduce total and/or LDL cholesterol by about 10–15%. Looking at LDL (the “bad”) and HDL (the “good”) cholesterol specifically, garlic appears to lower LDL but has no reliable effect on HDL. High triglyceride levels are another known risk factor for heart disease, but garlic seems to have no significant effects on triglyceride levels. Garlic supplements seem to reduce total and LDL cholesterol, particularly in those who have high cholesterol. HDL cholesterol and triglycerides do not seem to be affected. When Fresh Potato plants bloom, they send up five-lobed flowers that spangle fields like fat purple stars. By some accounts, Marie Antoinette liked the blossoms so much that she put them in her hair. Her husband, Louis XVI, put one in his buttonhole, inspiring a brief vogue in which the French aristocracy swanned around with potato plants on their clothes. The flowers were part of an attempt to persuade French farmers to plant and French diners to eat this strange new species. Today the potato is the fifth most important crop worldwide, after wheat, corn, rice and sugar cane. But in the 18th century the tuber was a startling novelty, frightening to some, bewildering to others—part of a global ecological convulsion set off by Christopher Columbus. Fresh Onions vary in size, shape, color, and flavor. The most common types are red, yellow, and white onions. The taste of these vegetables can range from sweet and juicy to sharp, spicy, and pungent, often depending on the season in which people grow and consume them. Farmers have cultivated allium vegetables for centuries. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, China is the biggest producer of onions worldwide. It is common knowledge that chopping onions causes watery eyes. However, onions may also provide potential health benefits. These may include reducing the risk of several types of cancer, improving mood, and maintaining skin and hair health.
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Valves come in numerous sizes and configurations and are used in thousands of applications across various industries. Likewise, there are various types of valves used in piping systems. These valves vary by operating mechanism/principle, function and design. Most common valve types and applications Ball valves: Ball Valves are quarter-turn valves that can be used for flow stoppage or flow modulation. They contain a horizontally hollowed-out sphere sitting tightly in the middle of the valve. When the valve is open, the hollow side aligns with the flow. The valve can also be placed in a partially open/closed position. Ball valves work well in high-pressure applications. Butterfly valves: Butterfly valves contain a flat disk/flap that swivels sideways to allow, block or regulate flow. These valves are often used in power plants and wastewater plants as shut off or regulating valves. While they are cheaper and smaller than ball valves, they are not good for high-pressure applications. Check valves: Check Valves allow the flow of media in one direction while preventing flow in the opposite direction. These valves typically have an inlet and an outlet port and operate using differential pressure. They are used to prevent reverse flow — a problematic phenomenon that can occur in piping systems, in which media flows in the wrong direction. This phenomenon can have profound implications such as problematic flow, contamination of the flowing media and damage to the piping system. There are various types of check valves, best suited to different applications. Plug valves: In plug valves, cylindrical or conical plugs are used to control flow. The plug has a horizontal hole through which the media flows. To open the valve, the plug is rotated sideways to align the hole to the flow. Plug valves can commonly be found in radiators, heaters and air systems. Gate valves: Gate Valves are linearly operated valves that contain barriers referred to as gates. The gates are raised and lowered to open and close the valve, respectively. Gate valves are designed to be completely open or completely closed and are not suitable for flow regulation. Globe valves: Globe Valves consist of a globe-shaped disc that blocks flow by closing against an orifice. The globe is raised and lowered by an outside stem and yoke, otherwise known as OS&Y. Unlike gate valves, globe valves can be used to regulate flow as they can be partially opened and partially closed. Gear is toothed, mechanical transmission elements used to transfer motion and power between Machine Parts, and in this article, we discuss the different types of gears available and how gears work. Operating in mated pairs, gears mesh their teeth with the teeth of another corresponding gear or toothed component which prevents slippage during the transmission process. Each gear or toothed component is attached to a machine shaft or base component, therefore when the driving gear (i.e., the gear that provides the initial rotational input) rotates along with its shaft component, the driven gear (i.e., the gear or toothed component which is impacted by the driving gear and exhibits the final output) rotates or translates its shaft component. Depending on the design and construction of the gear pair, the transference of motion between the driving shaft and the driven shaft can result in a change of the direction of rotation or movement. Additionally, if the Gears are not of equal sizes, the machine or system experiences a mechanical advantage which allows for a change in the output speed and torque (i.e., the force which causes an object to rotate). The North American forging industry continues to grow in technical prowess. OEMs are realizing that nothing beats forgings for strength and reliability. Advances in forging technology have expanded the range of shapes, sizes, and properties available in forged products to meet an increasing variety of design and performance requirements. Forging Components are regularly specified where strength, reliability, economy, and resistance to shock and fatigue are vital considerations. Forged materials offer the desired degree of high or low temperature performance, ductility, hardness, and machinability.
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Bearings are used to help reduce friction. Metal-upon-metal contact produces large amounts of friction. The friction adds to wear and tear of the metal, producing grinding that slowly degrades the metal. High Temperature Bearing reduces friction by having the two surfaces roll over each other, reducing the amount of friction produced. They consist of a smooth metal ball or roller that rolls against a smooth inner and outer metal surface. The rollers or balls take the load, allowing the device to spin. The load acted upon a bearing is either a radial or thrust load. Depending on the location of the bearing in the mechanism, it can see all of a radial or thrust load or a combination of both. For example, the bearing in the wheel of your car supports a radial and a thrust load. The weight of the car on the bearing produces a radial load while the thrust load is produced as the car turns a corner. Here we will examine some types of common Agricultural Bearings. Ball Bearings Ball Bearings are the most common type of bearing and can handle both radial and thrust loads. Ball bearings are also known as deep-groove single-row or Conrad bearings. The inner ring is typically fastened to the rotating shaft and the groove on the outer diameter provides a circular ball raceway. The outer ring is mounted onto the bearing housing. The ball bearings are housed in a race and when the load is applied, it is transmitted from the outer race to the ball and from the ball to the inner race. The raceway grooves have typical curvature radii of 51.5% to 53% of the ball diameter. Smaller curvature raceways can cause high rolling friction due to the tight conformity of the balls and raceways. Higher curvature raceways can shorten fatigue life from increased stress in the smaller ball-race contract area. Thin Wall Ball Bearing, also known as Conrad bearings, are typically used in small load applications. The contact points between the ball and the outer race is very small due to the spherical shape of the bearing. This also helps the ball spin very smoothly. Since the contact point is so small, the bearing can become overloaded at a specific point causing the ball bearing to become deformed. This will ruin the bearing. Ball bearings are typically used in applications where the load is relatively small. Straight Roller Bearings Straight roller or cylindrical bearings run in cylindrical raceways and have low-friction, high-radial load capacity, and high speed capability. Roller bearings are cylinder-shaped bearings where the point of contact between the bearing and the race is a line rather than a point. Load is distributed over a larger area and allows the bearing to handle a greater load. To minimize its tendency to skew, the roller’s length is not much greater than the diameter of the roller. Straight or Cylindrical Roller Bearings can be found in applications like conveyor-belt rollers, which are required to hold heavy radial loads. Their usual design is free to float axially, and they have roller-guiding flanges on both sides of one ring and none on the other side. This allows for the bearing to expand due to thermal activity when used in combination with a ball bearing’s fixed location at the opposite end. A thrust load can be supported in one direction if a guiding flange is added on one of the opposing rings’ side. A second flange can be added for two-directional thrust capacity. Needle Roller Bearings Needle Bearings use elongated cylindrical rolling elements with small diameters. They are used in applications where radial space is limited. The diameter to length ratio for the needles varies between 1-to-2.5 and 1-to-10. Due to their small size, they cannot be guided accurately and generate high amounts of friction. They are used at low speeds and oscillating motions as a result. Cages may be used to help guide the needles and improve retention.
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Depending on the type of food being packed, packing comes in various types. To pack these food materials, various Multi-Lane Packing Machines are used. The packing styles also change depending on the storage life of the product. Food that are high perishable like fresh processed meats and frozen items are best when vacuum packed since it can tremendously extend its storage life. There is a separate type of Stick Bag Packing Machine or food packing equipment used to perform vacuum packaging of the products. Here are the various types of food packaging machines: Food Vacuum Packaging Machine: It is one of the most efficient Horizontal Doypack Packing Machine to pack foods because it avoids air making food remain fresh. As aerobic microorganisms are responsible in swift deterioration of foods, they hardly thrive or are immobilized under this condition. Food vacuum packaging machine helps to extend storage life of food products thereby making the product well suited for sale on the freezer or cold display storage units of several retail stores. Biscuit Packaging Machine Biscuit packaging machine is another type of food packaging equipment. It is usually fitted with electronic digital temperature controller to maintain high precision in achieving the desired temperature during food packing process. It helps to bring the optimum freshness of the food. The most interesting aspect of this Stand Up Pouch Machine is that packaged products are closely monitored with its automatic feed counter that shows the quantity of items placed packed by the machine. This makes it easier for the food manufacturing companies to monitor daily factory output. Bundling Food Packaging Equipment Bundling Food packaging Equipment is quite common and is widely used by many food suppliers. It is capable of storing huge quantity of foods before they are banded or wrapped together as a single bundle. It is also called as the Spout Pouch Packing Machine. It can also be used for packing small items such as stick candies or individually packed hot-dogs that need to be bundled together for economic purposes. Bagging Machine It is popular in several China food processing factories. Foods in this case are packed in bags, sacks and pouches. This bagging machine is common to pack cereals and powdered foods such as milk powder and sugar. Closing Machines These closing Irregular Doypack Machines are similarly common in many food factories. This equipment is used to tie metal wires to enclose the food bag or pouch.
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Advertising can be powerful. You may have heard manufacturers describe ozone generators as “natural odor removers” that work “the way nature intended.” But are these claims misleading? Find out more about ozone air purifiers in this article to help you decide what is best for you and your family. What is ozone? As you may know, ozone is a gas. Ozone molecules have three oxygen atoms (O3), unlike the oxygen in the air that gives life to the planet (O2). Ozone is powerful because the extra oxygen atom can easily escape and attach to other substances. This highly reactive quality can potentially alter the chemical composition of some substances in the air and affect our cells if we breathe it in. What are ozone generators? Ozone Generators, also referred to as ozone machines, are ozone-generating devices that intentionally produce ozone gas. When sold as air purifiers to be used in indoor occupied spaces, they are marketed to be safe and effective (though these claims are generally false). This article discusses devices that produce ozone on purpose and not as a byproduct. Ionizers and electrostatic precipitators end up producing ozone as a byproduct as a result of their internal mechanisms. You may have heard about ionizers. They used to be quite popular and were often used in homes to clean the air and eliminate odors. However, in the spring of 2005, Consumer Reports Magazine exposed the units as potentially doing more harm than good–it was found that several of these devices could produce harmful levels of ozone. Though ozone is a byproduct of these ionizers and tends to be produced at a lower level than ozone generators, the federal government began a stricter regulation process for any air purifier that produces ozone, whether intentionally or as a byproduct. No federal agency has approved the use of ozone generators in occupied spaces, and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has very strict regulations for air purifiers sold in California to make sure that harmful ozone levels are not being produced. How do ozone generators work? 220V Ozone Generators produce ozone by breaking apart oxygen (O2) molecules into single atoms, which then attach to other oxygen molecules in the air to form ozone (O3). They accomplish this in one of two ways, according to the International Association of Certified Indoor Air Consultants (InterNACHI). Ozone generators work by: Silent corona discharge: These machines use the electric discharge to produce ozone by splitting the normal oxygen molecules in the air into single atoms. These atoms then attach to other O2 molecules in the air to form ozone (O3). Ultraviolet radiation: This process of ozone generation is similar to how the sun’s ultraviolet radiation splits O2 to form individual oxygen atoms. According to InterNACHI, this process is considered to be less efficient than corona discharge. Generac states that generators less than and equal to 600 volts are medium-voltage and generators greater than 600 volts are considered High Voltage Generators. Generators producing 4160 volts are common in many industries for large motors that require high voltage. The backup generator supplies voltage to an individual grid. Commonly stocked generator voltages are 4160 VAC, 480 VAC, 12,470 VAC, and 13,800 VAC, When power fails to an industrial facility, the backup generator supplies power to distribution and control panels for continued operations. The higher voltages from the generator are stepped down with transformers. The below content supplies information on each category of information.
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What is a Fastener? A fastener is a non-permanent or permanent mechanical tool that rigidly connects or affixes two surfaces or objects together. Non-permanent fasteners can easily be removed without damaging the joined materials. The removal of permanent fasteners might require substantial force and might damage the connected surfaces. Permanent Standard Fasteners are designed to be a long lasting form of secure connection. The wide range of fasteners includes screws, nails, nuts, bolts, and washers that come in different sizes, types, and configurations. Fasteners are one of the most used tools for building, fabricating, and configuring a variety of products and industrial equipment. Non-Permanent Threaded Fasteners There are an endless number of shapes, sizes, lengths, and varieties of Motorcycle Fasteners that range from the common nail to huge bolts to hold heavy duty manufacturing equipment in place. They can be generic or specially designed to fit an application. Every industry and manufacturer has a different and unique use for these valuable tools. The variability between fasteners is due to the extreme forces that are placed on them. The purpose of fasteners is to hold parts, components, and pieces of machinery together in the presence of excessive vibrations and pressure while retaining the ability to disassemble the pieces when necessary. There are several ways to separate, classify, and categorize fasteners, which include permanent and non-permanent as well as threaded and non-threaded. In the permanent classification are rivets and couplings that cannot be removed. Screws and Titanium Bolts fall into the threaded classification, while dowel pins and blind fasteners are non-threaded and permanent. Bolts Bolts are one of the more common types of Bicycle Fasteners and are used to hold two non-threaded pieces together. The head of a bolt, which comes in several varieties, is attached to the threaded male end. Bolts are classified by their shape and type of head. Anchor Bolts Anchor bolts are referred to as "cast in place," which means they are included in the fabrication of the component or part and are permanently attached to it. Different types of anchor Titanium Disc Rotor Bolts are designed for specific jobs. They are an industrial bolt that has been embedded into concrete for securing columns and supports to foundations.
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Quartz, granite and marble are three of the best and most popular countertop options on the market. Granite countertops have risen top popularity over the past few decades, while marble countertops have been a focal point of homes for years on end. And then there is quartz countertops, which have also risen in popularity in recent years as a viable alternative to both granite and marble options. But how do these three countertop materials compare to each other? That is the question that this guide will answer. Granite Countertops: Characteristics Granite countertops are some of the most beautiful and tough surfaces you can find. You will have a seemingly endless array of colors and styles to choose from when it comes to this amazing natural stone. Granite is very durable, which makes it an ideal countertop material for any home. No matter where you install Granite Countertops, they will look amazing. The only downside to granite – if it can even be considered a ‘downside’ – is that you must make sure to keep up on sealing. That said, having to apply a sealer to your countertop roughly once per year is not any kind of major inconvenience. Marble Countertops: Characteristics Marble is truly a timeless classic when it comes to building materials. This is evidenced by the fact that natural stone has been used to build everything from some of the world’s most famous statues to kitchen and bathroom countertops. While there are a plethora of countertop materials that are beautiful, many homeowners simply feel that there is no material as beautiful as marble. With numerous colors and styles available, many of which include elegant veining, it is surely hard to match the beauty of marble countertops. While much of marble’s appeal lies in its appearance, the material is also relatively durable. However, you must keep up on maintenance if you want to keep your Marble Vanity Tops in good shape. Because marble is more porous than granite, the stone countertops will require re-sealing more often. You will have to re-seal marble countertops about a few times per year. Quartz Countertops: Characteristics Artificial Quartz countertops are engineered surfaces that are made from a combination of roughly 90 percent ground natural quartz and about 10 percent polyresin. These specific percentages can slightly differ based on brands but will always be in the same area. Although quartz countertops are engineered, the surfaces are incredibly attractive. Due to the fact that they are manufactured, quartz countertops have many different styles, including those that replicate natural stones like granite and marble. Another benefit that results from these surfaces being engineered is that they are non-porous, which separates them from both granite and marble. This means that quartz countertops do not require the sealing that granite and marble countertops do. One thing you must watch out for is not exposing Artificial Quartz Countertop to excessive heat. High levels of heat can melt the resin and cause a permanent burn mark on the surface. Never set down hot pots or pans on a quartz countertop. Heat resistance is one of the only areas in which quartz does not match or surpass other countertop options.
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HOW TO STERILIZE GLASS DROPPER BOTTLES FOR DIY SKINCARE There comes a time in any DIYers life where you gotta sterilize a few glass bottles. Making your own skincare is a great way to reduce single-use packaging and customize your products. Alternatively, refillable skincare is getting more accessible each day- but you'll need to ensure all containers are safely sanitized before refilling! Our simple 5-step guide to sanitizing your glass dropper bottle will have you refilling with more confidence and less contamination! Our guide for how to clean the glass droppers (including the pesky pipettes!) can be found at the bottom of this blog post. STEP 1: CLEAN & SOAK Ensure your bottle is empty. Products containing oils (like oil-based serums) can't go down the drain and should be put into your trash. Once the bottle is empty, give it a quick rinse to flush out any residual product. To help release any labels and ensure the container is clean, soak overnight in soapy water. STEP 2: RINSE, REPEAT Remove your labels. Depending on how long you soaked your bottles, this may take some elbow grease! Spritz with 70% Isopropyl Alcohol to remove any stickiness. Once de-labelled, rinse twice with warm water to get the remaining soap out of the bottles. STEP 3: BOIL FOR TEN MINUTES Being careful not to burn yourself (glass containers will get very hot) use tongs to place your glass bottles in boiling water. Boil for ten minutes. After ten minutes, use tongs to remove your bottles. They will be extremely hot so simply set them on a surface to allow them to cool down before handling. STEP 4: RINSE IN 70% ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL Once your glass bottles have cooled completely, rinse in 70% isopropyl alcohol. Submerge the glass bottles completely to sanitize. If you’re confident you can clean the whole inside surface of the bottle, pour just enough isopropyl alcohol into each bottle to clean. Simply swish and empty! STEP 5: AIR DRY Lay fresh paper towel down on a clean surface. Position each bottle upside down on the paper towel to let it drip dry. You’ll need to wait until the bottles have air dried completely before refilling. It's important to wait for all alcohol and and any residual water to completely evaporate before you refill or reuse. The best bet is to not be in a hurry and leave them to dry overnight, or for 24 hrs. Glass Bottle Creating glass containers can be accomplished by one of two different processes – the Blow and Blow, or the Press and Blow process. Each process is chosen based on the kind of glass bottle being made. All glass bottles start out as raw materials. Silica (sand), soda ash, limestone, and cullet (furnace-ready, recycled glass) are combined into a specific mixture based on the desired properties of the bottle. The mixture is then melted at high temperatures in the furnace until it becomes a molten material, ready for formation. The type of glass this mixture will produce is known as soda-lime glass, the most popular glass for food and beverages.
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What is Aluminum Die Casting? When you’re in the process of designing an aluminum part, it is essential to consider which manufacturing process you’ll use to produce it. There are various methods for forming aluminum, and aluminum die casting is one of the most common options for designers to consider. Aluminum die casting is the method of choice for many automotive, industrial, and telecommunications products. It’s also often used to produce electrical, hydraulic, and lighting components. If you would like to know more about the aluminum die casting process and would like some help deciding if it is the right choice for your application, you’re in the right place. Aluminum die casting is a metal-forming process that allows for the creation of complex aluminum parts. Ingots of aluminum alloy are heated to very high temperatures until they are entirely molten. The liquid aluminum is injected under high pressure into the cavity of a steel die, also known as a mold — you can see an example of a mold for automotive parts above. The die is made up of two halves, and after the molten aluminum has solidified, they are separated to reveal the cast aluminum part. The resulting aluminum product is precisely formed with a smooth surface and often requires minimal or no machining processes. Given that steel dies are used, the process can be repeated many times using the same mold before it deteriorates, making aluminum die casting ideal for the high-volume production of aluminum parts. No. 1 – The Advantages of Aluminum Die Casting Die casting aluminum offers several advantages over other metal-forming processes that might make it the appropriate choice to create your aluminum parts. One of the most noteworthy is the ability to produce very complex shapes that neither extrusion nor machining can effectively create. A perfect example of this is the production of complex automotive parts, like transmissions and engine blocks. Other processes cannot consistently achieve the complexity and tight tolerances required for these products. Additional advantages include the ability to have textured or smooth surfaces and the capacity to accommodate both large and small parts. No. 2 – The Top Considerations During Part Design A few considerations have to be taken into account when designing the part to be cast. Firstly, the mold must be designed to separate and allow the solidified aluminum part to come out. The line that marks where the two halves of the mold come apart is referred to as a parting line, and you have to consider it in the early stages of die design. Another important consideration is the location of injection points. The die can be designed with several injection points in cases when the molten metal would otherwise solidify before reaching every crevice in the die. This can also help if cavities are included in the design; you can surround them with aluminum and still have the part come off when the mold is separated. You must also consider the thickness of the part’s walls. There are usually no guidelines for a minimum wall thickness, thanks to recent technology developments, but having walls with consistent thickness is often preferred. No. 3 – How it Compares to Green Sand and Permanent Mold Casting Green sand and permanent mold are two common die casting processing to provide aluminum die casting processing service. Green sand processes use wet sand to create the mold for the cast, making it less expensive than the other two processes. Above, you can see an operator pouring molten metal into a sand cast mold. Unlike die casting, which uses injection, permanent mold castings require the molten aluminum to be gravity poured into the mold. Permanent mold castings can also potentially produce stronger casts. Nevertheless, die casting offers better tolerances and better-finished surfaces than the other two methods, often eliminating the need for subsequent surface treatment.
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What is #noMore revolution in Ethiopia or Africa?
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Is Ethiopia the only country that has never been colonized?
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What is The Longest Wars Ever To Be Fought In Human History?
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