What is Titanium Metal? History Titanium metal, with the symbol Ti, is the ninth most abundant element in the earth‘s crust. It does not occur in large deposits, yet small amounts of titanium are found in almost every rock. Titanium is a shiny grey metal with a low corrosion rate and high strength; it is used for various applications. It was discovered by William Gregor, an English chemist and mineralogist, in 1791; he thought it was a compound. In 1795, he realized it was an independent element. Later, it was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a German chemist, after the Titans of Greek Mythology. Periodic Placement Titanium Material is placed in D-Block in the periodic table as the first element. It is classified as a transition metal with the atomic number 22, which means it has 22 electrons and 22 protons; it has an atomic weight of 47.867 Daltons. Titanium belongs to period 4 and group 4 of the periodic table because of its electronic configuration. The last two electrons of titanium metal reside in the fourth orbital, making the configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2. This electronic configuration explains the chemical bonds of the element and some other properties. Occurrence Titanium Products constitute 0.44 percent of the earth‘s crust, and it is widely distributed. Ninety percent (90%) of the titanium occurs in the form of ilmenite minerals in the earth's crust. Ilmenite minerals are compounds of iron, titanium, and oxygen called iron titanium oxide with the symbol FeTiO3. The remaining amount of titanium is found in the form of anatase, perovskite, rutile, leucoxene, sphene, and other minerals. These minerals are found in the form of compounds in sand, rocks, soils, and clays. It can also be found elsewhere in nature: in plants, natural waters, animals, stars, and meteorites. Nickel Nickel (Ni) is a naturally occurring metallic chemical element. Its atomic number on the periodic table is 28 and its atomic weight is 58.71. Nickel is essential for healthy plant life. For that reason, it is found not only in rock, but also in most fruits, vegetables, nuts and the food products derived from them, like wine and chocolate. Because it is naturally occurring, it must be mined from deep within the earth instead of synthetically created in a lab. Called nickel ore, there are two main types of ore deposits: laterites, which are mainly composed of nickeliferous limonite and garnierite, and magmatic sulfide deposits, which are primarily composed of the ore mineral pentlandite. In general, nickel has a silvery-white color, high toughness, is ferromagnetic and has excellent resistance to corrosion and rust. Some of its additional beneficial properties include its malleability, ductility, alloy-ability and high heat resistance—it has a melting point of 1453 degrees Celsius. Applications Nickel Material is valued for its positive properties, detailed in the section above. It is used to make products and both decorative and functional coatings. It is also used extensively to make alloys, which are in turn used to make products of all kinds. Since nickel can be found in a wide range of metals, it is utilized in a correspondingly vast number of industries including currency and coinage, consumer products, healthcare, chemical, industrial, food and beverage, electronics, military, transport, aerospace, architecture and marine.